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Lesson 36
Manner Case


Vocabulary

áhesh

to be responsible

bishib

to be sudden

edethi

to share

lema

to be gentle

rúu

to lie down

shadon

truth; honor [shad (pure; perfect) + on (head)]

sho

to be heavy

wéedan

to read

wod

to sit

yada

to thirst; to be thirsty

Manner Case

[VP CP–S CP–Manner]

To mark a Case Phrase as Manner (the way in which something is done), add the ending –nal.” This ending is much like the English –ly as in “patiently” and “thoroughly.”

Along with the Manner Case comes the conjunction “únalú” (how; in what manner). Not a question-word, “únalú” introduces a clause that fulfills the Manner case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know how (the manner in which) birds fly.”

Suzette Haden Elgin coined a limited set of conjunctions like “únalú.” Her formation in this set for “how” was “widaweth” [wida (carry) + weth (road; path; way)]. We won’t be using it here, but you should recognize it if you should happen upon it.

Adverbs

We’re all taught in grammar school that words ending in –ly in English are “adverbs” because they can modify a verb or an adjective in addition to modifying a noun. It is important that we draw the distinction between these, which in Láadan are Manner Case elements, and “true adverbs.” “True adverbs” are rare and magical words; a true adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence—and the entire meaning of the sentence changes with each new placement. A few English “true adverbs” are: “almost,” “only,” and “even.” Láadan uses postpositions for some of these functions, such as “neda” (only) and “rano” (almost). Others are handled by other Láadan grammatical features; “even” is one of these; it will be addressed in a future lesson.

Examples

Bíi hal behid wa.

He works.

Báa hal behid bebáanal?

How does he work?

Bíi hal behid lóolonal wa.

He works slowly.

Bíi hal behid thunal wa.

He works like (in the manner of) a parent.

Bíi hal behid thul lethanal wa.

He works like (in the manner of) my parent.

Bíi lothel behid únalú hal le wa.

He knows how I work.

By this time it should be a foregone conclusion that the Possessive ending will move to the end of the Manner case phrase.

Bíi im ne wa.

You travel.

Bíi im ne hinal wa.

You travel thus (in this/that manner) .

Bíi im ne zhenal wa.

You travel likewise (in similar manner) .

Bíi im ne beyenal wa.

You travel somehow (in some manner) .

Bíi im ra ne ranal wa.

In no way do you travel.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi aríli medi háawith woho Láadan dozhenal wa.

2

Bíi ul om berídan duthahátha Elízhabeth bedim únalú eril dathim hothul betha wo.

3

Báa eril ban eba Mázhareth betho woshad wonemeth ehashádim thenanal?

4

Báa ril yod shamid bebáanal?

5

Bíi láad ra le thalenal oyinan wa; bóo óomasháad ne shonal úyahú nosháad ne beth lethodim.

6

Bíi aril nasháad ábedá miwithede didenal wáa.

Modify the Láadan in some way; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi ril methad mehalehale mewobalin wowithizh wa.

áya

8

Báa il nayahá lometh oyunan?

bebáa

9

Báa aril rilin woháada wodéelahá yobeth nasháaleya wáa.

yada

10

Bíi eril wod rul núusha udathihéeya obée wa.

wamehul

11

Bíi medibé mebel len mazheth dená lenethodim wa.

beye

12

Bíi aril eb withid belideth ebaláde wáa.

héeyahel

Note the word “wamehul” [wam (be still) + –hul (extremely)] to be incorporated into #10. When applying multiple suffixes to a word, the Degree marker becomes part of the meaning that fulfills the Case role; therefore, the Degree marker will be applied and then the Case ending. There are very few suffixes that can follow a Case ending (we’ll see them in later lessons). Therefore, we’d build the word thus: “wam” (be still) + –hul (extremely) + –nal (MANN): “wamehulenal.” The same principle would apply to “héeyahel” in #12.

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

The education-specialist reads how students lie down and sleep.

14

Anthony’s friends are trying to create a family intentionally.

15

The senior was responsible to sign suddenly about the burdens of life.

16

The busy teacher works honorably.

17

The carpenter gently forgives Matthew’s grandchild for the waste.

18

How (in what manner) did Bethany share her warm food with the singer on the hill?

The word “waste” in #17 is a new word; “to waste; to squander” is the opposite of “to store:” “rahol” [ra– (NON) + ol (to store)].

In #18, the verb “edethi” (to share), unlike its English counterpart, takes the person with whom one is sharing as its Goal. Its Object, of course, is what is being shared.

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Answers

1

Far in the future all children will speak Láadan easily.

2

The healer’s aunt hopes to teach Elizabeth how her grandmother needleworked.

3

Did Margaret’s spouse give a perfect pearl to the astronomer joyfully?

4

How (in what manner) is the domesticated creature eating?

5

I don’t see well; prithee walk heavily when you arrive at my home

6

The farmer will depart from the town early.

 

7

The old women can make music.

Bíi ril methad mehalehale mewobalin wowith áyanal wa.

The old women can make music beautifully.

8

Is the caregiver listening to the song?

Báa il nayahá oyunan lometh bebáanal?

How (in what manner) is the caregiver listening to the song?

9

The smiling gardener will drink coffee at dawn.

Báa aril rilin woháada wodéelahá yobeth yadanal nasháaleya wáa.

The smiling gardener will drink coffee thirstily at dawn.

10

The cat sat there during the afternoon.

Bíi eril wod rul wamehulenal núusha udathihéeya obée wa.

The cat sat extremely still there during the afternoon.

11

We promise to bring our assistant a car.

Bíi medibé mebel len mazheth dená lenethodim beyenal wa.

We promise to bring our assistant a car somehow.

12

The man will buy the house from the baker.

Bíi aril eb withid belideth ebaláde héeyahelenal wáa.

The man will buy the house from the baker warily (a trifle fearfully).

 

13

Bíi wéedan ehomá únalú merúu i meháana bedihá wa.

14

Bíi meduhel lan Ánetheni betho onidath nédeshubenal wáa.

15

Bíi eril áhesh lishid zháawith dosh wíthuth bishibenal wa.

16

Bíi hal woshóod wohomá shadonenal wáa.

17

Bíi baneban belidá raholeth hoshem Máthu bethadim lemanal wa.

18

Báa edethi Bétheni wohowa wohana bethoth lalomádim hibosha bebáanal?

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