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Lesson 37
Beneficiary Case


Vocabulary

don

comb

hoberídan

great-aunt; great-uncle; sibling of a grandparent

hosherídan

great-niece; great-nephew; grandchild of a sibling

hu

boss, ruler

idon

hairbrush

lod

household

od

cloth

onin

nurse

owe

garment

thol

breast

Beneficiary Case

[VP CP–S CP–Beneficiary]

To mark a Case Phrase as a Beneficiary (that for whom, or on whose behalf, something is done), add the ending –da.”

The Beneficiary marker given above is the one used when something is done voluntarily. There are three alternative forms. If none of the others applies, use –da.”

As mentioned above, there are three additional Beneficiary Case suffixes for use to reflect the conditions surrounding being of benefit to the Beneficiary.

–daá

by accident

“It ‘just happened’ that X benefitted; it wasn’t my intention.”

–dá

under coercion

“I was forced to benefit X, against my will.”

–dáa

under duty

“I wasn’t forced, but I felt compelled by conscience or a sense of duty or justice.”

Along with the Beneficiary Case comes the conjunction “údahú” (for whom/what). “Údahú” introduces a clause that fulfills the Beneficiary case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know for whom my parents worked.”

Examples

Bíi eril alehale le wa.

I musicked.

Bíi eril alehale le weheháda wa.

I musicked for the storekeeper.

Bíi eril alehale le Ána bada wa.

I musicked for my beloved Anna.

Bíi eril alehale le hoberídanizh lethoda wa.

I musicked for my great-aunt.

Again—for thoroughness’ sake rather than because you need it to be made explicit at this point—the case ending moves to the end of the Possessive case phrase.

Bíi hal le wa.

I work.

Bíi hal le héena lethoda wa.

I work for my heart-sibling (because I want to).

Bíi hal le shonedáa wa.

I work for peace (because I feel myself duty-bound).

Bíi hal le withizhedaá hi wa.

I work for this woman (it just happened that way).

Bíi hal le ábedáhidedá wa

I work for the farmer (so his friends won’t break my legs).


Bíi aril nosháad le didenal wa.

I shall arrive early.

Bíi aril nosháad le didenal haláda wa.

I shall arrive early for the worker’s sake.

Bíi aril nosháad ra le didenal haláda wa.

I shall not arrive early for the worker’s sake.

Bíi aril nosháad le didenal rada wa.

I shall arrive early for nothing’s/no-one’s sake.

Bíi aril nosháad le didenal halá rada wa.

I shall arrive early in spite of the worker.

In the above set of examples, the second sentence specifies that the speaker will arrive “for the benefit of” the worker. The third sentence is somewhat ambiguous: will the speaker, on behalf of the worker, refrain from arriving early; or will she arrive early but not in order to help the worker? We will be able to resolve this ambiguity once we reach the lesson on the Focus Marker. The fourth sentence, using “ra” (NON) in place of a noun in Benefit Case, is not ambiguous: she will arrive early but not to benefit anything or anyone in particular. In the fifth sentence, we have a new grammatical structure. The case ending, –da,” is split off from its noun and affixed to the word-part ra– (NON) which follows the noun. This doesn’t just nullify the case function (that is, it doesn’t just express the Subject’s lack of care for the interests of the beneficiary); rather, it reverses the case function (that is, it states explicitly that the Subject is opposed to the interests of the would-be beneficiary). I translated it here as “in spite of;” it might just as well be translated “against,” “opposed to,” “contrary to X’s interests,” or a host of other English phrases.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi mehéeya ehená yom abeshethuda waá.

2

Báa dibáa Másha bebáadáa?

3

Báa mehíya e merahíya thol letha? Bíidi oth ra hi; thol laleda wa.

4

Bíi néde hoberídan Méri betha idoneth delith bethada i worado wohoma bethadaá wa.

5

Báa lothel beye údahú thel Ánetheni edeth nasháaleya?

6

Bíi eril them nasháad rul núude bishibenal náwíidá wáa.

In the final clause of #3, do you notice there is no verb? In English we use the “copula” (to be) but Láadan doesn’t have or need one.

Incorporate the second noun as a Beneficiary (of the kind specified); translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi eril el odá wodazh wohodeth wa.

wehe (obligation)

8

Bíi aril yod ra Thíben yuth wáa.

hosherídan betha

9

Bíi eríli di omá wothenal yáaninesha yil wáa.

onin woho

10

Báa dibé ham dená marisha?

emidá (coercion)

11

Báa eril ban ebalá lanemideth Elízhabeth bedim?

bebáa

12

Bíi aril bel Máthu woshad wohoweth lalomádim Máyel bede wáa.

Shuzhéth (accident)

Did you notice the word “odá” in #7? It’s formed from “od” (cloth) + –á (DOER) and means “weaver.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

I moved hither from the east for (obligation) my spouse’s work.

14

The farmer sold the house to my friend for the physician.

15

The traveler is alone a whole lot, while traveling, in the interests of learning.

16

The peacemaker pays attention (internally) to beauty in the interests of harmony.

17

For whom/what (coerced) are some (many) ones going to the west by boat?

18

Teresa perceived (internally) for whom/what she followed her boss’s many commands; she cared for her household with the money.

Did you note the word “physician” in #14? “Medicine” would be the “science of healing” or “edutha.” A “physician” would be a practitioner of this science: “eduthahá.”

In #18, did you use “doth” (follow) in translating the second clause? A more-Láadan formulation would be to use “dihem” (to accept; literally to say yes).

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Answers

1

Almost all scientists fear for (on behalf of) the safety of all-that-is (obviously).

2

On whose behalf (obligation) is Marsha carrying the container of salty vegetables to the magician by (using) muscle?

3

Are my breasts small or large? [didactic] That’s not important; breasts are for milk.

4

Mary’s great-aunt wants a hairbrush for her hair and for (accidentally) her weak hand.

5

Does someone know for whom/what Anthony gets grain at dawn?

6

The cat needed to depart from there suddenly in the interests (coerced) of survival (of continuing to be alive).

 

7

The weaver made soft cloth.

Bíi eril el odá wodazh wohod wehedáa wa.

The weaver made soft cloth for (obligation) the store.

8

Steven will not eat the fruit.

Bíi aril yod ra Thíben yuth hosherídan bethada wáa.

Steven will not eat the fruit to benefit his great-niece/nephew.

9

Long ago, the old priest wisely taught under a tree using questions.

Bíi eríli om wobalin wowíitham wothenal dibáanan yáaninesha yil onineda menedebe wáa.

Long ago, the teacher wisely taught-by-questions under a tree on behalf of many nurses.

10

I swear the assistant was on the island.

Bé eril ham dená marisha emidádá.

I swear the assistant was on the island for (coerced) the biologist.

11

Did the baker give Elizabeth a dog?

Báa eril ban ebalá lanemideth Elízhabeth bedim bebáada?

On whose behalf did the baker give Elizabeth a dog?

12

Matthew will bring the singer a perfect garment from Michael.

Bíi aril bel Máthu woshad wohoweth lalomádim Máyel bede omá lethodaá wáa.

Matthew will bring the singer a perfect garment from Michael for (accidentally) my teacher.

 

13

Bíi eril mina le henede nudim hal ebatho lethodáa wa.

14

Bíi eril eb ábedá belideth lan lethodim eduthaháda wa.

15

Bíi sholanehul imá, imeya, bedida wáa.

16

Bíi lohil shoná áya withethuth shada wáa.

17

Báa mesháad beyen honedim eshenan bebáadá?

18

Bíi eril loláad Therísha údahú dihem be dibó hutho bethoth menedebe wáa; naya be lod bethoth loshenan.

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