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Lesson 37
Beneficiary Case


Vocabulary

dama

to touch

edethi

to share

hu

boss, ruler

lishid

to sign; to use sign language

lod

household

od

cloth

onin

nurse

thó–

Prefix(v): to have just VERBed

wéedan

to read

yidelothel

curiosity [yide (be hungry) + lothel (to know)]

Beneficiary Case

[VP CP–S CP–O CP–Mann
CP–Instr CP–Assoc
CP–Goal CP–Src CP–Plc CP–Time
CP–Beneficiary]

To mark a Case Phrase as a Beneficiary (that for whom, or on whose behalf, something is done), add the ending –da.”

The Beneficiary marker given above is the one used when something is done voluntarily. There are three alternative forms. If none of the others applies, use –da.”

As mentioned above, there are three additional Beneficiary Case suffixes for use to reflect the conditions surrounding being of benefit to the Beneficiary.

–daá

by accident

“It ‘just happened’ that X benefitted; it wasn’t my intention.”

–dá

under coercion

“I was forced to benefit X, against my will.”

–dáa

under duty

“I wasn’t forced, but I felt compelled by conscience or a sense of duty or justice.”

Along with the Beneficiary Case comes the conjunction “údahú” (for whom/what). “Údahú” introduces a clause that fulfills the Beneficiary case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know for whom my parents worked.”

Examples

Bíi hal le wa.

I work.

Bíi hal le héena lethoda wa.

I work for my heart-sibling (because I want to).

Bíi hal le shonedáa wa.

I work for peace (because I feel myself duty-bound).

Bíi hal le withizhedaá hi wa.

I work for this woman (it just happened that way).

Bíi hal le ábedáhidedá wa.

I work for the farmer (so his friends won’t break my legs).


Bíi hal behid wa.

He works.

Báa hal behid bebáada?

Whom/what does he work for?

Bíi hal behid laneda wa.

He works for a friend.

Bíi hal behid Méri beda wa.

He works for Mary.

Bíi hal behid lan Méri bethoda wa.

He works for Mary’s friend.

By this time it should be routine to note that personal names do not take suffixes, as in the fourth and fifth examples above, and that the Case ending will move to the end of the Possessive case phrase, as in the fifth.

Bíi medibíi bezh údahú hal behid wa.

They (few) declare for whom/what he works.


Bíi mehal bezh hida wa.

They (few) work for this/that (person/thing).

Bíi mehal bezh zheda wa.

They work for the same (person/thing).

Bíi mehal bezh beyeda wa.

They work for someone/something.

Bíi mehal bezh rada wa.

They work for no-one/nothing.

Bíi mehal bezh lan rada wa.

They work for anyone but a friend.
They work in spite of a friend.

Bíi mehal bezh hizh hizheda wa.

They work for each other.

Notice the pair of examples using “rada[ra– (NON) + –da (BENEF)]. The first of these is a straightforward statement that there is nothing to which the Beneficiary Case applies. The second, on the other hand, states that the case does apply, but that the noun it would be applied to absolutely does not. In effect, this example excludes this noun from the Beneficiary Case function.

Idiomatically, this construction also has the effect of reversing the action of the Beneficiary Case function, stating that the action is opposed to the benefit of the person/thing named in the case phrase; this reversal is true in all three of the “intentional” cases (Beneficiary, presented here; Purpose, the very next case presented; and Cause, the next one after Purpose).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi mehéeya ehá woho rano yom abeshethuda waá.

2

Bée eril them nasháad rul bishibenal núude náwíidá wáa.

3

Báa meháya oma behizhetha? Bíidi oth ra hi; oma nayada wa.

4

Bóo lishid na shelenal iládáa úthú aril wéedan le wothal woháabede hi.

5

Bíi mehedethi hothul anath, dedideth, i damath onidadim wum hadihad ameda wa.

6

Báa lothel with waha údahú aril bel Ánetheni thuth heshehothedim nude nasháaleya?

In #1, note the idiomatic use of the Beneficiary case with the verb “héeya” (to fear; to be afraid) to indicate the person/thing that is in danger of whatever the Subject fears. The person/thing of which the Subject is afraid would be given in the Object case. Of course, the person/creature feeling the fear is the Subject.

In the final clause of #3, do you notice there is no verb? In English we use the “copula” (to be) but Láadan doesn’t have or need one.

In #5, did you notice that the verb “edethi” (to share) takes as its Object that which is shared and the one(s) with whom it is shared is given in the Goal case? This is the same pattern as that we’ve seen in communication verbs. If the situation arises that two or more people are sharing something together (rather than one sharing with another or others), there could instead be multiple Subjects.

Incorporate the second noun as a Beneficiary (of the kind specified); translate into English before and after.

7

Báa eril el odá wodazh wohodeth?

wehe (obligation)

8

Bé aril yod ra Thíben yuth wa.

hosherídan betha

9

Bíidi eríli om wobalin wowíitham wothenal dibáanan yáaninesha yil wáa.

onin menedebe

10

Bée rilrili dibé ham worabalin wodená marisha wóo.

emidá (coercion)

11

Bíi aril wida Máthu woshad wohilith lalomádim Máyel bede wo.

Shuzhéth (accident)

12

Báa eril ban ebalá lanemideth Elízhabeth bedim?

bebáa

In #7, did you notice the word “odá” (weaver) [od (cloth) + –á (DOER)]? This works because –á means “maker” as well as “doer.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

I swear I’ve just moved to California from the east for (obligation) my spouse’s work.

14

Would that the farmer sell the house to my friend on behalf of the physician.

15

(WARN) The philosopher is alone a whole lot, while traveling, in the interests of learning.

16

The peacemaker pays attention (internally) to curiosity in the interests of harmony.

17

For whom (which person) (coerced) are some (many) ones going to the west by boat?

18

Teresa perceived (internally) for whom/what she followed her boss’s many commands; she cared for her household with the money.

In #18, did you use “doth” (follow) in translating the second clause? A more-Láadan formulation would be to use “dihem” (to accept; to agree; literally, to say yes).

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Answers

1

Almost all scientists fear for the safety of all-that-is.

2

(WARN) The cat needed to depart suddenly thence in the interest (coerced) of survival (of continuing to be alive).

3

Are her hands beautiful? (didactic) That’s not important; hands are for caregiving.

4

Prithee, beloved-you, sign rigorously for (under obligation) the audience what I shall read from this good book.

5

The grandparents always share food, stories, and touch with the entire family in the interests of love-for-those-related-by-blood.

6

Does anyone know on whose behalf Anthony will take honey hence to the park at dawn?

 

7

Did the weaver make soft cloth?

Báa eril el odá wodazh wohodeth wehedáa?

Did the weaver make soft cloth for (under obligation) the shop?

8

I promise Steven will not eat the fruit.

Bé aril yod ra Thíben yuth hosherídan bethada wa.

I promise Steven will not eat the fruit to benefit his great-niece/great-nephew.

9

(Didactic) I understand an old priest long ago taught wisely below a tree using questions.

Bíidi eríli om wobalin wowíitham wothenal dibáanan yáaninesha yil onineda menedebe wáa.

(Didactic) I understand an old priest long ago taught wisely below a tree using questions on behalf of many nurses.

10

(WARN) No idea if it’s true but the young assistant may promise to be present on the island.

Bée rilrili dibé ham worabalin wodená marisha emidádá wóo.

(WARN) No idea if its true but the young assistant may promise to be present on the island to beneift (coerced) the zoologist.

11

I’m guessing Matthew will carry pure water from Michael to the singer.

Bíi aril wida Máthu woshad wohilith lalomádim Máyel bede Shuzhéth bedaá wo.

I’m guessing Matthew will carry pure water from Michael to the singer for (accidentally) Suzette.

12

Did the baker give Elizabeth a dog?

Báa eril ban ebalá lanemideth Elízhabeth bedim bebáada?

On whose behalf did the baker give Elizabeth a dog?

 

13

Bé ril thómina le Halishónidim henede hal ebatho lethodáa wa.

14

Bíi wil eb ábedá belideth lan lethodim eduthaháda wa.

15

Bée sholanehul ehená imeya bedida wáa.

16

Bíi ril lohil shoná yidelotheleth shada wáa.

17

Báa ril mesháad beyen eshenan honedim bebáadá? Withedá nedaba?

18

Bíi eril loláad Therísha údahú dihem be dibó hutho bethoth menedebe wáa; naya be lod bethoth loshenan.

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