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Lesson 34
Translation 5


Vocabulary

buth

to gather (not said of people)

buzhehoth

conference center [buzh (conference) + hoth (place)]

dalelolhobewan

weapon [dalel (made-thing) + olob (trauma; blow) + –lh– (PEJ) + –wan (PURP)] {AB}

dáan

word

dedide

story

dishóodalel

news-viewing device [di (speak) + shóo (happen) + dalel (made-thing)]

duthel

be useful [duth (use) + el (make)]

elathóo

to be welcome [ela– (GLAD) + thóo (guest)]

elathóodi

to bid welcome [elathóo (be welcome) + di (speak)]

elathóoshub

to make welcome [elathóo (be welcome) + shub (do)]

hadihad

always

hithena

happiness, for good reason(s) One of a set of words we’ll see later.

méwith

crowd [mé– (COLLV) + with (person)]

nahin

to become

nóo–

Prefix (verb): to pause in VERBing; to interrupt VERBing

obeth

neighbor [o (around) + beth (home)]

ohena

respect for good reason(s) One of a set of words we’ll see later.

ona

face (body part) [on (head)]

rahadihad

never

ramíili

evil (theological) [ra– (NON) + míili (radiance)]

radi

be secret [ra– (NON) + di (speak)] {AB}

raláad

to non-perceive [ra– (NON) + láad (to perceive)]

re … re

neither … nor [ra– (NON) + e (or)]

redeb

to find

shineshid

to be invited

shinóoya

be fertile; be creative [shin (two) + óoya (heart)]

shishid

to be united [shidi (be together)]

shishidebeth

nation; country [shishid (be united) + beth (home)]

shishidebethá

citizen

sholan

to be alone

shóo

to happen; to come to pass; to occur

thena

joy, for good reason(s) One of a set of words we’ll see later.

uhud

nuisance

yibili

ice [yib (be solid—as opposed to liquid or gaseous) + ili (water)]

yon

government

zha

name

zhebud

uniform (clothing) [zhe (be alike) + bud (clothing)]

zhedi

to agree in word [zhe (be alike) + di (speak)]

zhelith

to agree in thought [zhe (be alike) + lith (to think)]

Buth” (to gather, not of people) is a transitive verb (it takes an Object) whose Object is the things being gathered. This is distinct from “lolin” (to gather), which we’ve seen previously, which is intransitive and whose Subject is the people who gather together.

Inherent in the etymology of “dalelolhobewan” (weapon) is “olob” (blow; trauma; to strike; to hit). It also involves a case ending we have yet to encounter; please be patient.

The word “dishóodalel” is part of a set consisting also of “dishóo” (to tell news) [di (to speak) + shóo (to happen)], “dishóodal” (news article; news story; news program) [dishóo (tell news) + dal (thing)], and “shóodal” (news) [shóo (to happen) + dal (thing)].

With “duthel” (to be useful) come two derivative words formed at the same time: “duthele” (no longer useful for its original purpose, but still useful if repurposed) and “raduthel” (to be useless).

Hadihad” (always) and “rahadihad” (never) occur after the Place case phrase, if any, in the clause they modify. This is where the Time case (the next case to be introduced) will typically occur.

The words “hithena,” “ohena” and “thena” are from a set of words we’ll meet in a future lesson. They are the most general of three sets of words meaning “happiness,” “respect,” and “joy;” specifically, they mean “happiness for good reason,” “respect for good reason,” and “joy for good reason.”

The word “méwith” (crowd) is derived from “with” (person) plus a new prefix, mé– (COLLV) that makes collective noun forms. From “babí” (bird), the form “mébabí” means “flock of birds.” Likewise, from “dithemid” (cow), the form “médithemid” means “herd of cattle.”

Nahin” (become) is typical of a rule that will be presented in a future lesson. For now, all we need to remember is that its Subject is its “before” self (the thing that becomes something else), and its “after” self (what it becomes) is presented in the Identifier Case.

In the etymology of “shinóoya” (be fertile) we find “óoya” (heart) [oya (skin)].

And in that of “ramíili” (evil, theological) is “míili” (radiance).

The words “zhedi” (agree in word) and “zhelith” (agree in thought) are half of a set with two more: “zheláad” (agree in perception; consensus) [zhe (be alike) + láad (perceive)] and “zheshub” (cooperate) [zhe (be alike) + shub (to do)].

Láadan Text

Wowem Wothulid Letha

2Bíide thulid letha lalomám i lomám wa; mehan with woho rano bath. Thedehul shishidebeth batha; sháad lalom ba nudim núude. Bithim ba worabalin wowithizh, i meheba bezh. Wóoban be leth aril id shebasheb. Beróo eba batho i shem batha shishidebethám, nahin ba habelidám—izh ra shishidebethám. Dom ra le thulizh lethath; thi le thulid lethath neda, izh bahid wothal wothulem. Mehabelid lezh shidinal i hithenanal; thod i lalom ba; ulanin i elash le.

3Bíide mezha lom batho ramíile shishidebethethu lenethoth wa. Oth hal batho, izh dam ra yon ohenath badim; ba uhudem. Mesháad withid doól; mehune lheben mewoleyan wozhebudeth i mewida dalelolhobewaneth. Mebel lheben thulid lethath dáan ranan belid lezhethode. Meraláad obeth lezhetho wohonan wi. Ham láad le hathóolethameth shinethab, i sholan le wa. Izh dushehul bóodan le thul lethath. Mesháad lan thulidetho letha beyezh ledim; medibé lezh úmú lan letho. Mezhelith with menedebe i thulid letha wáa, izh rayomeháalish zhedi. Rilrili aril sháad le benedim i di dedide lethoth; thad duthel le. Ril medibé mebuth mewobun wolan letho úthú woho aril them le wa. Bithim le sháawithizh; Therísha zha betho. Aril im be leden, i be nayahá lethom.

4Bíide ril ham worahíyaháalish woholin hene shishidebethethusha mesh wa. Meham mewohíya womiwith menedebe neda núusha; ham ra worahíya womiwith. Mehim Therísha i le radinal wothoma womiwithedim. Mehan with miwithethu hi menedebe thulid lethath, izh lothel rawith shóo bathuth. Mehelathóodi with menedebe ledim miwith benethosha. Elathóoshub onida lezheth beth bethosha nil, zhe menédeshub lan letho beth lethosha. Nóosháad with beye wethesha i di ledim hath menedebe, “Bóo di ne dedide nethoth.” Melolin méwith, i di le benedim úthú eril shóo láad lethonal. Ril thel le mewobun wolan menedebe. Methóohim lezh miwith henethudim nidi nedebe. Meshóo dal woho zhenal.

5Bíide ril ham shée meworahíyahil womiwithden nedebe neda han shishidebethethusha wa. Mehim Therísha i le mewobun wolaneden beyezh hizhethudim. Radozh wí shéesha, i mehan with nedebe neda thulid lethath—íizha mehelathóoshub onida nedebe Therísha beth i leth i lan lethoth, i mehilehal méwith menedebe dedide lethoth miwithesha woho. Thel le laneth nidi nedebe miwithesha woho.

6Bíide ril meham hibo i yed menedebe mewohíya womiwitheden menedebe hon shishidebethethusha wa. Mehim lezh lan lethoden menedebe miwithedim hizh. Mehan with menedebe thulid lethath, i merahíyahal méwith. Medóhu áatham i both áath benethoth, i le woshineshid wodihám. Dedide le, i thel laneth nidi nedebe i dotháth menedebe.

7Bíide ril ham rahowahul, hish, hishud, i rohoro yibilithu hun shishidebethethusha hadihad wa. Meham meworahíya womiwith nedebe neda núusha; methóohim len hizhedim shin neda. Radozh wí nusha, i an rawith rano thulid lethath, izh eril melaad with menedebe leth bethu oyunan; ril melolin méwith. Di le beth onidathosha, áathamesha, i buzhehothesha; thel le dotháth menedebe i laneth nedebe. Menahin lan beyezh héenam, i loláad le thenahuleth; eril thi ra le onidath rahadihad eril.

8Bíide ril ham woshinóoya worabo meworahíya womiwitheden shin neda i mewohíya womiwith ábedethuden menedebe hatham shishidebethethusha úshahú beth letha wa. Menéhim len belid letho—íizha eril medóyom lan letho beth; rilrili meyom len nusha. Eril mehan with woho rano thulid lethath, izh ril mehan with menedebe leth íi. Medibithim meworahan wowith ledim; medam mehan ben leth íizha an ra le beneth. Mesháad i mehil meworahíya woméwith menedebe dedide lethoth, íizha thi dishóodalel yonethe radaleth re leth bethu re thulid lethath bethu. Dedide le, i medoth with menedebe leth.

9Bíide eril mesháad hathóoletham nedebe, i neláad ra le ona bathath oyinan, íizha ril náduredeb le bath hadihad wa. Eril oth hal thulidetho letha wi, i ril dush náshub beye beth. Thad lalom ra le, izh thad dedide—i mehil with leth wa. Ril wohoth wohal thuletho letha hi lethom. Dush zha le ramíili yonethu shishidebethethuth hi! Wil den sheb le daleth menedebe wa!

Morpheme-by-Morpheme Analysis with My Translation

Wowem Wothulid Letha

Wowem

REL + Lose

Wothulid

REL + Parent + MALE = Father

Letha

I + POSSbirth

My Lost Father


2Bíide thulid letha lalomám i lomám wa; mehan with woho rano bath. Thedehul shishidebeth batha; sháad lalom ba nudim núude. Bithim ba worabalin wowithizh, i meheba bezh. Wóoban be leth aril id shebasheb. Beróo eba batho i shem batha shishidebethám, nahin ba habelidám—izh ra shishidebethám. Dom ra le thulizh lethath; thi le thulid lethath neda, izh bahid wothal wothulem. Mehabelid lezh shidinal i hithenanal; thod i lalom ba; ulanin i elash le.

2

Bíide

DECL + NARR

thulid

Father

letha

I + POSSbirth

lalomám

Sing + DOER = Singer + IDENT

i

And

lomám

Song + DOER = SongWriter + IDENT

wa;

MYPERC

mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

woho

#All

rano

Almost

bath.

XLove1 + OBJ

Thedehul

BeFar + DEGextreme

shishidebeth

BeUnited + Home = Nation

batha;

XLove1 + POSSbirth

sháad

ComeGo

lalom

Sing

ba

XLove1

nudim

Here + GOAL

núude.

There + SRC

Bithim

Meet

ba

XLove1

worabalin

REL + NON + BeOldAnim = BeYoung

wowithizh,

REL + Person + FEM = Woman

i

And

meheba

PL + Spouse

bezh.

X2-5

Wóoban

GiveBirth

be

X1

leth

I + OBJ

aril

FUT

id

AndThen

shebasheb.

Death

Beróo

Because

eba

Spouse

batho

XLove1 + POSS

i

And

shem

Offspring

batha

XLove1 + POSSbirth

shishidebethám,

Nation + DOER = Citizen + IDENT

nahin

Become

ba

XLove1

habelidám

Dwell + DOER = Resident + IDENT

—izh

But

ra

NEG

shishidebethám.

Citizen + IDENT

Dom

Remember

ra

NEG

le

I

thulizh

Parent + FEM = Mother

lethath;

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

thi

Have

le

I

thulid

Father

lethath

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

neda.

Only

izh

But

bahid

XLove1 + MALE = HeLove

wothal

REL + BeGood

wothulem.

REL + Parent + IDENT

Mehabelid

PL + Dwell

lezh

We2-5

shidinal

BeTogether + MANN

i

And

hithenanal;

HappinessGood + MANN

thod

Write

i

And

lalom

Sing

ba;

XLove1

ulanin

Study

i

And

elash

Play

le.

I

2My father was a singer and songwriter; almost everyone knew him. His native country was far away; he came hither thence to sing. He met a young woman, and they wed. Later she gave me birth and then died. Because his wife and child were citizens, he became a resident—but not a citizen. I don’t remember my mother; I had only my father, but he was a good parent. We dwelt together happily; he wrote and sang; I studied and played.


3Bíide mezha lom batho ramíili shishidebethethu lenethoth wa. Oth hal batho, izh dam ra yon ohenath badim; ba uhudem. Mesháad withid doól; mehune lheben mewoleyan wozhebudeth i mewida dalelolhobewaneth. Mebel lheben thulid lethath dáan ranan belid lezhethode. Meraláad obeth lezhetho wohonan wi. Ham láad le hathóolethameth shinethab, i sholan le wa. Izh dushehul bóodan le thul lethath. Mesháad lan thulidetho letha beyezh ledim; medibé lezh úmú lan letho. Mezhelith with menedebe i thulid letha wáa, izh rayomeháalish zhedi. Rilrili aril sháad le benedim i di dedide lethoth; thad duthel le. Ril medibé mebuth mewobun wolan letho úthú woho aril them le wa. Bithim le sháawithizh; Therísha zha bethom. Aril im be leden, i be nayahá lethom.

3

Bíide

DECL + NARR

mezha

PL + Name

lom

Song

batho

XLove1 + POSS

ramíili

NON + Radiance = Evil

shishidebethethu

Nation + PARTV

lenethoth

We>5 + POSS + OBJ

wa.

MYPERC

Oth

BeImportant

hal

Work

batho,

XLove1 + POSS

izh

But

dam

Manifest

ra

NEG

yon

Gov’t

ohenath

RespectGood

badim;

XLove1 + GOAL

ba

XLove1

uhudem.

Nuisance + IDENT

Mesháad

PL + ComeGo

withid

Person + MALE = Man

doól

AtLast

mehune

PL + Wear

lheben

XDesp>5

mewoliyen

PL + REL + BeGreen

wozhebudeth

REL + BeSimilar + Clothing = Uniform + OBJ

i

And

mewida

PL + Carry

dalelolhobewaneth.

MadeThing + Trauma + PEJ + PURP = Weapon + OBJ

Mebel

PL + BringTake

lheben

XDesp>5

thulid

Father

lethath

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

dáan

Word

ranan

NON + INSTR

belid

House

lezhethode.

We2-5 + POSS + SRC

Meraláad

PL + NON + Perceive

obeth

Around + Home = Neighbor

lezhetho

We2-5 + POSS

wohonan

#All + INSTR

Without a Word

wi.

SELFEVID

Ham

BePresent

láad

Perceive

le

I

hathóolethameth

Time + Moon = Month + Circle = Year + OBJ

shinethab,

#2 + #10 = #12

i

And

sholan

BeAlone

le

I

I Am 12 Years Old

wa.

MYPERC

Izh

But

dushehul

Must + DEGextreme

bóodan

Rescue

le

I

thul

Parent

lethath.

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

Mesháad

PL + ComeGo

lan

Friend

thulidetho

Father + POSS

letha

I + POSSbirth

beyezh

Indef2-5

ledim;

I + GOAL

medibé

PL + Speak + PROMISE = Promise

lezh

We2-5

úmú

CONJident

lan

Friend

letho.

I + POSS

Mezhelith

PL + BeAlike + Think

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

i

And

thulid

Father

letha

I + POSSbirth

wáa,

TRUSTED

izh

But

rayomeháalish

NON + BeSafe = BeDangerous + DEGextraord

zhedi.

BeAlike + Speak

Rilrili

HYPOTH

aril

FUT

sháad

ComeGo

le

I

benedim

X>5 + GOAL

i

And

di

Speak

dedide

Story

lethoth;

I + POSS + OBJ

thad

BeAble

duthel

BeUseful

le.

I

Ril

PRES

medibé

PL + Promise

mebuth

PL + GatherX

mewobun

PL + REL + BeNew

wolan

REL + Friend

letho

I + POSS

úthú

CONJobj

woho

#All

aril

FUT

them

Need

le

I

wa.

MYPERC

Bithim

Meet

le

I

sháawithizh;

ADULT + Woman

Therísha

Teresa

zha

Name

bethom.

X1 + POSS + IDENT

Aril

FUT

im

Travel

be

X1

leden,

I + ASSOC

i

And

be

X1

nayahá

CareFor + DOER = CareGiver

lethom.

I + POSS + IDENT

3His songs named the evil of our country. His work was important, but the government did not show him respect; he was a nuisance. At last the men came; they wore brown uniforms and carried weapons. They took my father without a word from our house. Our neighbors non-perceived in all sensory modalities, of course. I was twelve years old, and I was alone. But I absolutely had to rescue my father. Several friends of my father came to me; they promised to be my friends. Many people agree-in-thought with my father, I’m told, but it’s extraordinarily dangerous to agree-in-word. I might go to them and tell my story; I might be useful. My new friends promised to gather everything I was going to need. I met an adult woman; Teresa was her name. She would travel with me and be my caregiver.


4Bíide ril ham worahíyaháalish woholin hene shishidebethethusha mesh wa. Meham mewohíya womiwith menedebe neda núusha; ham ra worahíya womiwith. Mehim Therísha i le radinal wothoma womiwithedim. Mehan with miwithethu hi menedebe thulid lethath, izh lothel rawith shóo bathuth. Mehelathóodi with menedebe ledim miwith benethosha. Elathóoshub onida lezheth beth bethosha nil, zhe menédeshub lan letho beth lethosha. Nóosháad with beye wethesha i di ledim hath menedebe, “Bóo di ne dedide nethoth.” Melolin méwith, i di le benedim úthú eril shóo láad lethonal. Ril thel le mewobun wolan menedebe. Methóohim lezh miwith henethudim nidi nedebe. Meshóo dal woho zhenal.

4

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ril

PRES

ham

BePresent

worahíyaháalish

REL + NON + BeSmall = BeLarge + DEGextraord

woholin

REL + Forest

hene

East

shishidebethethusha

Nation + PARTV + PLC

mesh

Across

wa.

MYPERC

Meham

PL + BePresent

mewohíya

PL + REL + BeSmall

womiwith

REL + Town

menedebe

#>5

neda

Only

núusha;

There + PLC

ham

BePresent

ra

NEG

worahíya

REL + BeLarge

womiwith.

REL + Town

Mehim

PL + Travel

Therísha

Teresa

i

And

le

I

radinal

NON + Speak = BeSecret + MANN

wothoma

REL + BeNear

womiwithedim.

REL + Town + GOAL

Mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

miwithethu

Town + PARTV

hi

Demo1

menedebe

#>5

thulid

Father

lethath,

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

izh

But

lothel

Know

rawith

NON + Person = NoOne

shóo

Happen

bathuth.

XLove1 + PARTV + OBJ

Mehelathóodi

PL + GLAD + Guest = BeWelcome + Speak = SayWelcome

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

ledim

I + GOAL

miwith

Town

benethosha.

X>5 + POSS + PLC

Elashóoshub

BeWelcome + Do = MakeWelcome

onida

Family

lezheth

We2-5 + OBJ

beth

Home

bethosha

X1 + POSS + PLC

nil,

Inside

zhe

BeAlike

menédeshub

PL + Intention

lan

Friend

letho

I + POSS

beth

Home

lethosha.

I + POSS + PLC

Nóosháad

PAUSE + ComeGo

with

Person

beye

Indef1

wethesha

Path + PLC

i

And

di

Speak

ledim

I + GOAL

hath

Time

menedebe,

#>5

“Bóo

REQ

di

Speak

ne

You1

dedide

Story

nethoth.”

You1 + POSS + OBJ

Often

Melolin

PL + Assemble

méwith,

COLLV + Person = Crowd

i

And

di

Speak

le

I

benedim

X>5 + GOAL

úthú

CONJobj

eril

PAST

shóo

Happen

láad

Perceive

lethonal.

I + POSS + MANN

Ril

PRES

thel

Get

le

I

mewobun

PL + REL + BeNew

wolan

REL + Friend

menedebe.

#>5

According To My Perceiving

Methóohim

PL + Guest + Travel = Visit

lezh

We2-5

miwith

Town

henethudim

East + PARTV + GOAL

nidi

Add’l

nedebe.

#2-5

Meshóo

PL + Happen

dal

Thing

woho

#All

zhenal.

BeAlike + MANN = Similarly

4There was a vast forest across the east of the country. There were only many small towns there; there wasn’t a large city. Teresa and I traveled secretly to a nearby town. Many people of this town knew my father, but no-one knew what had happened to him. Many people welcomed me to their town. A family made us welcome in their home, as my friends at home intended. Some person would often pause in the street and say to me, “Prithee tell your story.” Crowds gathered, and I told them what had happened from my perspective. I gained many new friends. We visited several more towns in the east. Everything happened the same way.


5Bíide ril ham shée meworahíyahil womiwithden nedebe neda han shishidebethethusha wa. Mehim Therísha i le mewobun wolaneden beyezh hizhethudim. Radozh wí shéesha, i mehan with nedebe neda thulid lethath—íizha mehelathóoshub onida nedebe Therísha beth i leth i lan lethoth, i mehilehal méwith menedebe dedide lethoth miwithesha woho. Thel le laneth nidi nedebe miwithesha woho.

5

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ril

PRES

ham

BePresent

shée

Desert

meworahíyahil

PL + REL + BeLarge + DEGminor

womiwitheden

REL + Town + ASSOC

nedebe

#2-5

neda

Only

han

South

shishidebethethusha

Nation + PARTV + PLC

wa.

MYPERC

Mehim

PL + Travel

Therísha

Teresa

i

And

le

I

mewobun

PL + REL + BeNew

wolaneden

REL + Friend + ASSOC

beyezh

Indef2-5

hizhethudim.

Demo2-5 + PARTV + GOAL

Radozh

NON + BeEasy = BeDifficult

Life

shéesha,

Desert + PLC

i

And

mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

nedebe

#2-5

neda

Only

thulid

Father

lethath

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

—íizha

Although

mehelathóoshub

PL + MakeWelcome

onida

Family

nedebe

#2-5

Therísha

Teresa

beth

X1 + OBJ

i

And

leth

I + OBJ

i

And

lan

Friend

lethoth,

I + POSS + OBJ

i

And

mehilehal

PL + PayAttn + DEGunusual

méwith

Crowd

menedebe

#>5

dedide

Story

lethoth

I + POSS + OBJ

miwithesha

Town + PLC

woho.

#All

Thel

Get

le

I

laneth

Friend + OBJ

nidi

Add’l

nedebe

#2-5

miwithesha

Town + PLC

woho.

#All

5There was a desert with only a few somewhat large towns in the south of the country. Teresa and I traveled with a few new friends to some few of these. Life was difficult in the desert, and only a few people knew my father—although several families made Teresa and I and my friends welcome, and many crowds paid close attention to my story in each town. I gained a few more friends in each town.


6Bíide ril meham hibo i yed menedebe mewohíya womiwitheden menedebe hon shishidebethethusha wa. Mehim lezh lan lethoden menedebe miwithedim hizh. Mehan with menedebe thulid lethath, i merahíyahal méwith. Medóhu áatham i both áath benethoth, i le woshineshid wodihám. Dedide le, i thel laneth nidi nedebe i dotháth menedebe.

6

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ril

PRES

meham

PL + BePresent

hibo

Hill

i

And

yed

Valley

menedebe

#>5

mewohíya

PL + REL + BeSmall

womiwitheden

REL + Town + ASSOC

menededebe

#>5

hon

West

shishidebethethusha

Nation + PARTV + PLC

wa.

MYPERC

Mehim

PL + Travel

lezh

We2-5

lan

Friend

lethoden

I + POSS + ASSOC

menedebe

#>5

miwithedim

Town + GOAL

hizh.

Demo2-5

Mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

thulid

Father

lethath,

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

i

And

merahíyahal

PL + BeLarge + DEGunusual

méwith.

Crowd

Medóhu

PL + CAUSEto + BeOpen

áatham

Church

i

And

both

Hotel

áath

Door

benethoth,

X>5 + POSS + OBJ

i

And

le

I

woshineshid

REL + Invite

wodihám.

REL + Speak + DOER = Speaker

Dedide

Story

le,

I

i

And

thel

Get

laneth

Friend + OBJ

nidi

Add’l

nedebe

#2-5

i

And

dotháth

Follow + DOER + OBJ

menedebe.

#>5

6There were many hills and valleys with many small towns in the west of the country. We traveled with many friends to several of these towns. Many people knew my father, and the crowds were unusually large. Churches and hotels opened their doors, and I was an invited speaker. I “storied,” and I gained a few more friends and many followers.


7Bíide ril ham rahowahul, hish, hishud, i rohoro yibilithu hun shishidebethethusha hadihad wa. Meham meworahíya womiwith nedebe neda núusha; methóohim len hizhedim shin neda. Radozh wí nusha, i an rawith rano thulid lethath, izh eril melaad with menedebe leth bethu oyunan; ril melolin méwith. Di le beth onidathosha, áathamesha, i buzhehothesha; thel le dotháth menedebe i laneth nedebe. Menahin lan beyezh héenam, i loláad le thenahuleth; eril thi ra le onidath rahadihad eril.

7

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ril

PRES

ham

BePresent

rahowal,

NON + BeWarm = BeCold

hish,

Snow

hishud,

Snow + Stone = Hail

i

And

rohoro

Storm

yibilithu

BeSolid + Water = Ice + PARTV

hun

North

shishidebethethusha

Nation + PARTV + PLC

hadihad

Always

wa.

MYPERC

Meham

PL + BePresent

meworahíya

PL + REL + BeLarge

womiwith

REL + Town

nedebe

#2-5

neda

Only

núusha;

There + PLC

methóohim

PL + Visit

len

We>5

hizhedim

Demo2-5 + GOAL

shin

#2

neda.

Only

Radozh

BeDifficult

Life

nusha,

Here + PLC

i

And

an

BeAcquainted

rawith

NON + Person = NoOne

rano

Almost

thulid

Father

lethath,

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

izh

But

eril

PAST

meláad

PL + Perceive

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

leth

I + OBJ

bethu

X1 + PARTV = About

oyunan;

Ear + INSTR

ril

PRES

melolin

PL + Assemble

méwith.

Crowd

Di

Speak

le

I

beth

Home

onidathosha,

Family + POSS + PLC

áathamesha,

Church + PLC

i

And

buzhehothedsha;

Conference + Place

thel

Get

le

I

dotháth

Follow + DOER + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

i

And

laneth

Friend + OBJ

nedebe.

#2-5

Menahin

PL + Become

lan

Friend

beyezh

Indef2-5

héenam,

HeartSib + IDENT

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

le

I

thenahuleth;

JoyGood + OBJ

eril

PAST

thi

Have

ra

NEG

le

I

onidath

Family + OBJ

rahadihad

NON + Always

eril.

PAST

7It was always extremely cold and snowy with hail and ice-storms in the north of the country. There were only a few, large cities there; we visited only two of them. Life was difficult here, and almost no-one knew my father, but many people had heard about me; the crowds gathered. I spoke in family homes, in churches, and in convention centers; I gained many followers and a few friends. Some-few friends became heart-siblings, and I was overjoyed; I had never before had a family.


8Bíide ril ham woshinóoya worabo meworahíya womiwitheden shin neda i mewohíya womiwith ábedethuden menedebe hatham shishidebethethusha úshahú beth letha wa. Menéhim len belid letho—íizha eril medóyom lan letho beth; rilrili meyom len nusha. Eril mehan with woho rano thulid lethath, izh ril mehan with menedebe leth íi. Medibithim meworahan wowith ledim; medam mehan ben leth íizha an ra le beneth. Mesháad i mehil meworahíya woméwith menedebe dedide lethoth, íizha thi dishóodalel yonethe radaleth re leth bethu re thulid lethath bethu. Dedide le, i medoth with menedebe leth.

8

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ril

PRES

ham

BePresent

woshinóoya

REL + #2 + Heart = BeFertile

worabo

REL + NON + Mountain = Plain

meworahíya

PL + REL + BeLarge

womiwitheden

REL + Town + ASSOC

shin

#2

neda

Only

i

And

mewohíya

PL + REL + BeSmall

womiwith

REL + Town

ábedethuden

Farm + PART + ASSOC

menedebe

#>5

hatham

Center

shishidebethethusha

Nation + PARTV + PLC

úshahú

CONJplc

beth

Home

letha

I + POSSbirth

wa.

MYPERC

Menéhim

PL + BACK + Travel

len

We>5

belid

House

letho

I + POSS

—íizha

Although

eril

PAST

medóyom

PL + CAUSEto + BeSafe = Protect

lan

Friend

letho

I + POSS

beth;

X1 + OBJ

rilrili

HYPOTH

meyom

PL + BeSafe

len

We>5

nusha.

Here + PLC

Eril

PAST

mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

woho

#All

rano

Almost

thulid

Father

lethath,

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

izh

But

ril

PRES

mehan

PL + BeAcquainted

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

leth

I + OBJ

íi.

Also

Medibithim

PL + Speak + Meet = Greet

meworahan

PL + REL + NON + BeAcquainted

wowith

REL + Person

ledim;

I + GOAL

medam

PL + Manifest

mehan

PL + BeAquainted

ben

X>5

leth

I + OBJ

íizha

Although

an

BeAcquainted

ra

NEG

le

I

beneth.

X>5 + OBJ

Mesháad

PL + ComeGo

i

And

mehil

PL + PayAttn

meworahíya

PL + REL + BeLarge

woméwith

REL + Crowd

menedebe

#>5

dedide

Story

lethoth,

I + POSS + OBJ

íizha

Although

thi

Have

dishóodalel

Speak + Happen + MadeThing = NewsDevice

yonethe

Gov’t + POSSnone

radaleth

NON + Thing = Nothing + OBJ

re

Neither…

leth

I + OBJ

bethu

About

re

…Nor

thulid

Father

lethath

I + POSSbirth + OBJ

bethu.

About

Dedide

Story

le,

I

i

And

medoth

PL + Follow

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

leth.

I + OBJ

8There was a fertile plain with only two large cities and many small farm-towns in the center of the country where my natal home was. We-many traveled back to my house—although my friends had made it safe; we would be safe here. Almost everyone had known my father, but now many people knew me, also. Many strangers greeted me; they gave evidence of knowing me although I did not know them. Many large crowds came and paid attention to my story, even though the government’s news outlet had nothing, neither about me nor about my father. I “storied,” and many people followed me.


9Bíide eril mesháad hathóoletham nedebe, i neláad ra le ona bathath oyinan, íizha ril náduredeb le bath hadihad wa. Eril oth hal thulidetho letha wi, i ril dush náshub beye beth. Thad lalom ra le, izh thad dedide—i mehil with leth wa. Ril wohoth wohal thuletho letha hi lethom. Dush zha le ramíili yonethu shishidebethethuth hi! Wil den sheb le daleth menedebe wa!

9

Bíide

DECL + NARR

eril

PAST

mesháad

PL + ComeGo

hathóoletham

Year

nedebe,

#2-5

i

And

neláad

AGAIN + Perceive

ra

NEG

le

I

ona

Face

bathath

XLove1 + POSSbirth + OBJ

oyinan,

Eye + INSTR

íizha

Although

ril

PRES

náduredeb

CONT + TRYto + Find

le

I

bath

XLove1 + OBJ

hadihad

Always

wa.

MYPERC

Eril

PAST

oth

BeImportant

hal

Work

thulidetho

Father + POSS

letha

I + POSSbirth

wi,

SELFEVID

i

And

ril

PRES

dush

Must

náshub

CONT + Do

beye

Indef1

beth.

X1 + OBJ

Thad

BeAble

lalom

Sing

ra

NEG

le,

I

izh

But

thad

BeAble

dedide

Story

—i

And

mehil

PL + PayAttn

with

Person

leth

I + OBJ

wa.

MYPERC

Ril

PRES

wohoth

REL + BeImportant

wohal

REL + Work

thuletho

Parent + POSS

letha

I + POSSbirth

hi

Demo1

lethom.

I + POSS + IDENT

Dush

Must

zha

Name

le

I

ramíili

Evil

yonethu

Gov’t + PARTV

shishidebethethuth

Nation + PARTV + OBJ

hi!

Demo1

Wil

OPT

den

Help

sheb

Change

le

I

daleth

Thing + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

wa!

MYPERC

9Several years had passed, and I hadn’t seen his face again, even though I continued searching for him always. Clearly my father’s work had been important, and now someone must continue to do it. I could not sing, but I could “story”—and people paid attention to me. Now my father’s important work was mine. I must name the evil of the government of this country! Would that I help change many things!

Free Translation

My Lost Father

2My father was a singer and songwriter; almost everyone knew him.His native country was far away; he came hither thence to sing. He met a young woman, and they wed. Later she gave me birth and then died. Because his wife and child were citizens, he became a resident—but not a citizen. I don’t remember my mother; I had only my father, but he was a good parent. We dwelt together happily; he wrote and sang; I studied and played.

3His songs named the evil of our country. His work was important, but the government did not show him respect; he was a nuisance. At last the men came; they wore brown uniforms and carried weapons. They took my father without a word from our house. Our neighbors non-perceived in all sensory modalities, of course. I was twelve years old, and I was alone. But I absolutely had to rescue my father. Several friends of my father came to me; they promised to be my friends. Many people agree-in-thought with my father, I’m told, but it’s extraordinarily dangerous to agree-in-word. I might go to them and tell my story; I might be useful. My new friends promised to gather everything I was going to need. I met an adult woman; Teresa was her name. She would travel with me and be my caregiver.

4There was a vast forest across the east of the country. There were only many small towns there; there wasn’t a large city. Teresa and I traveled secretly to a nearby town. Many people of this town knew my father, but no-one knew what had happened to him. Many people welcomed me to their town. A family made us welcome in their home, as my friends at home intended. Some person would often pause in the street and say to me, “Prithee tell your story.” Crowds gathered, and I told them what had happened from my perspective. I gained many new friends. We visited several more towns in the east. Everything happened the same way.

5There was a desert with only a few somewhat large towns in the south of the country. Teresa and I traveled with a few new friends to some few of these. Life was difficult in the desert, and only a few people knew my father—although several families made Teresa and I and my friends welcome, and many crowds paid close attention to my story in each town. I gained a few more friends in each town.

6There were many hills and valleys with many small towns in the west of the country. We traveled with many friends to several of these towns. Many people knew my father, and the crowds were unusually large. Churches and hotels opened their doors, and I was an invited speaker. I “storied,” and I gained a few more friends and many followers.

7It was always extremely cold and snowy with hail and ice-storms in the north of the country. There were only a few, large cities there; we visited only two of them. Life was difficult here, and almost no-one knew my father, but many people had heard about me; the crowds gathered. I spoke in family homes, in churches, and in convention centers; I gained many followers and a few friends. Some-few friends became heart-siblings, and I was overjoyed; I had never before had a family.

8There was a fertile plain with only two large cities and many small farm-towns in the center of the country where my natal home was. We-many traveled back to my house—although my friends had made it safe; we would be safe here. Almost everyone had known my father, but now many people knew me, also. Many strangers greeted me; they gave evidence of knowing me although I did not know them. Many large crowds came and paid attention to my story, even though the government’s news outlet had nothing, neither about me nor about my father. I “storied,” and many people followed me.

9Several years had passed, and I hadn’t seen his face again, even though I continued searching for him always. Clearly my father’s work had been important, and now someone must continue to do it. I could not sing, but I could “story”—and people paid attention to me. Now my father’s important work was mine. I must name the evil of the government of this country! Would that I help change many things!

Comments

I’ve used an idiom we’ve seen only once before: “ham láad S T #” where “S” is the Subject, “T” is a time period and “#” is a number or quantifier. It means, in English, that “S is # Ts old.”

Another idiom used here is “hath menedebe” (often) [hath (time) + menedebe (many)]. There is also a similar idiom: “hath nedebe” (seldom) [hath (time) + nedebe (few/several)].

A new idiom introduced in this story is: “láad Xthonal” [X + POSS + MANN] (to X; according to X’s perceiving). This idiom could also appropriately use “loláad” (perceive internally) or “edeláad” (believe). This is similar in function to “wa” (MYPERC), except it can be attributed to others—it is assumed that the speaker has discussed the subject’s perceptions sufficiently to make a case for this attribution.

In paragraph #3, we see the word “wohonan.” Formally, postpositions such as “woho” do not take case endings; a noun takes the case ending and the postposition follows. Informally, however, when it will be clearly understood, the noun can be omitted and the erstwhile postposition can take the case ending, acting more in the capacity of a pronoun.

In paragraph #4, we see the phrase “wothoma womiwith” (nearby town). This is the third distinct English translation for “thoma.” The first is, of course, as a stative verb meaning “to be near.” The second we saw was as a postposition meaning “near to” a locatory case phrase. It is the nature of different languages to divide up observed reality in different ways; these three related concepts in English are the same in Láadan.

In paragraph #4, we see an idiomatic usage, “shóo Xthu” (happened to X); in essence, a Possessive-enhanced case phrase where “shóo” could be translated “occurrence” or “happening.” In English we use something that strongly resembles Goal case for this meaning. The use of the Láadan Goal case for the patient of the occurrence (the one who suffered it) would suggest the Source case for its agent (the one who caused it). That’s not appropriate in an intransitive verb; if we want to include all that information, we’d instead use a transitive verb, eg “shub” (to do).

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