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Lesson 33
Associate Case


Vocabulary

alehale

to “music”; to make music (to sing, to whistle, to play a musical instrument)

–da

Suffix (Type-of-Sentence Word): said in jest; telling a joke

dáan

word

dosh

burden

lishid

to sign; to use sign language

lo

to rejoice

meda

vegetable

ódon

cheese

on

head (body part)

yob

coffee

Associate Case

[VP CP–S CP–Associate]

To mark a Case Phrase as an Associate (with whom something is done, as in English “I danced with her.”), add the ending –den.” If you want to indicate that there is pleasure in the association, you may use the alternative Associate marker –dan;” –den is a neutral form.

Note that, though the English translation may seem similar (both can be termed “with”), the Associate Case is distinct from the Instrument Case. One uses an Instrument (as in “I eat with a spoon” “Bíi yod le badanan wa”); one is accompanied by an Associate (as in “I eat with a friend” “Bíi yod le laneden wa,”—or, better yet, “Bíi yod le lanedan wa.”).

Along with the Associate Case comes the conjunction “údenú” (with whom/what). It introduces a clause that fulfills the Associate case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know with whom the woman works.”

Examples

Bíi im behid ilidim wa.

He travels to the water.

Bíi néhim behid ilidim wa.

He travels back to the water.

Báa néhim behid ilidim bebáaden?

With whom does he travel back to the water?

Bíi néhim behid ilidim laneden wa.

He travels back to the water with a friend.


Bíi dom omá údenú eril bedi háawithizh lamitheth wáa.

The teacher remembers with whom the girl studied mathematics.

Possessive Associate

Bíi bedi behizh Láadan wáa.

She’s learning Láadan.

Báa bedi behizh Láadan bebáaden?

With whom is she learning Láadan?

Bíi bedi behizh Láadan edin bethadan wáa.

She is learning Láadan with (pleasurably) her cousin.

By this time, it should be something of a foregone conclusion that the Associate case suffix makes its way to the end of the Possessive case phrase.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi dibáa wehehá Shuzhéth bedim údenú eril meyime loshá Araneshasha obe wáa.

2

Báa mehalehale berídan ehátha omáden bath?

3

Bíi habelid duthahá héena nayaháthodan i shamid bezhethoden nib wa.

4

Bíi mehil ehashá i shoná wohaba wohanath óoyonan wothádan wáa.

5

Báa menédeshub mehim hoshem Másha betha bodim mazhenan bebáaden?

6

Bíi néde benem ebalá lan bethodan nedebe wa.

Incorporate the second noun as an Associate (* indicates pleasure in the association); translate into English before and after.

7

Bóo mehelash nezh boó dun ehenáthosha.

Elízhabeth

8

Bíi eril nésháad rul bethedim wáa.

*árul bim

9

Báa eríli memina onida woho nudim melade?

bebáa

10

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh wa.

*edin letha

11

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá badanan?

sherídan betha

12

Bíi aríli melo withizh merod beróo ril menime mesháad lezh olinedim wáa.

eshoná hi

Notice in #9 that, even though we have a verb that carries the plural, we can still specify the number (or “several,” “many,” or even “all” or “none”) by placing a quantifier after the Case Phrase.

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

Mary will greet her guests when they arrive; now she’s examining her clothes in the mirror.

14

The moon can be present with the sun or with the many stars.

15

The traveler sex-acted with (pleasurably) someone.

16

My birth-sibling will walk to my garden with her horse because the grass is sweet.

17

The worker remembers with whom the pregnant assistant learned philosophy.

18

The air dances with the earth and the river; it is the wind.

In #15, did the case phrase “with someone” give you pause? “Someone” is “beye;” “with someone” would have to be “beyeden” or, if pleasurably, as in this case, “beyedan.”

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Answers

1

The storekeeper asks Suzette with whom the bankers ran across Arkansas (I’ve heard).

2

Are the scientist’s aunts making music with six teachers?

3

The healer dwells with (pleasurably) the caregiver’s heart-sibling and with their eight domestic animals.

4

An astronomer and a peacemaker taste the fragrant food with (pleasurably) the sage.

5

With whom do Marsha’s grandchildren intend to travel to the mountain in (using) the car?

6

The baker wants to stay with (pleasurably) several of her/his friends.

 

7

Prithee, you three, play in the philosopher’s field.

Bóo mehelash nezh boó dun ehenáthosha Elízhabeth beden.

Prithee, you three, play in the philosopher’s field with Elizabeth.

8

The cat returned home.

Bíi eril nésháad rul bethedim áruledan bim wáa.

The cat returned home with (pleasurably) four kittens.

9

Did all the families move hither from the ocean long ago?

Báa eríli memina onida woho nudim melade bebáaden?

With whom/what did all the people move hither from the ocean, long ago?

10

My grandmother needleworks a pillow.

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh edin lethadan wa.

My grandmother needleworks a pillow with (pleasurably) my cousin.

11

Did the old farmer eat with (using) a spoon?

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá badanan sherídan bethaden?

Did the old farmer eat with (using) a spoon with her niece/nephew?

12

Far in the future, a million women will rejoice because we (few) are now willing to go to the forest.

Bíi aríli melo withizh merod beróo ril menime mesháad lezh olinedim eshonáden hi wáa.

Far in the future, a million women will rejoice because we (few) are now willing to go to the forest with this peacemaker.

 

13

Bíi aril dibithim Méri thóo bethoth úyahú menosháad bezh; ril il be bud bethoth bethebenan wa.

14

Bíi thad ham óol e rosheden e asheden menedebe wa.

15

Bíi ril shim imá beyedan wáa.

16

Bíi óomasháad hena letha déela lethodim omid bethoden beróo meénan hesh wa.

17

Bíi dom halá údenú eril bedi wolawida wodená eheneth wa.

18

Bíi amedara shum doniden i wiliden; be yulem wa.

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