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Lesson 32
Instrument Case


Vocabulary

bada

spoon

batha

fork

hum

knife

óoma

foot [oma (hand)]

óoyo

mouth [oyo (nose)]

oya

skin

oyi

eye

oyo

nose

oyu

ear

thun

muscle

Instrument Case

[VP CP–S CP–Instrument]

To mark a Case Phrase as an Instrument (as that which is used to do something), use the ending –nan.” Insert an “e” if necessary.

Along with the Instrument Case, we get the conjunction “únanú” (using what; by means of what). It introduces a clause that fulfills the Instrument case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know by means of what the men move the furniture,” or, in more colloquial English, “I know what the men use to move the furniture.”

Examples

Bíi láad le háawitheth oyinan wa.

I see the child(ren).

Bíi láad le lometh oyunan wa.

I hear the song.

Bíi láad le yuleth oyanan wa.

I feel (with my skin) the wind.

Bíi láad le mahinath oyonan wa.

I smell the flower.

Bíi láad le yuth óoyonan wa.

I taste the fruit (that’s in my mouth).

In English, words for perception are specific to the sensory modality involved (see, hear, smell, taste, feel/touch). The non-specific verb “perceive” can feel awkward to English speakers precisely because it does not contain this sensory modality information.

Láadan handles perception differently; in Láadan, we have a non-sensory-modality-specific verb (láad) which we can, optionally, make specific by means of an Instrument Case phrase. This is one of the truly liberating things about Láadan: one can easily use “láad” by itself to mean “perceive” with no sensory modality implied or required.

Bíi il le háawitheth oyinan wa.

I look at/watch the child(ren).

Bíi il le lometh oyunan wa.

I listen to the song (to detect its melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic structures).

Bíi il le yuleth oyanan wa.

I feel (with my skin) the wind (to sense its temperature/direction/etc).

Bíi il le mahinath oyonan wa.

I sniff the flower (to sample its odor).

Bíi il le yuth óoyonan wa.

I taste the fruit (to learn if it’s sweet or tart).

The same construct applies to paying attention. One can “pay attention” with the eyes (English: “watch; look at”); with the ears (English: “listen”—also obsolete Láadan: “ma”); with the mouth (English: “taste”—as in “Here, taste this”—also obsolete Láadan: “lóoyo”); with the nose (English: “smell, sniff”—also obsolete Láadan: “shu”); or with the skin (English doesn’t make this easy to say; we can use “feel,” but then we almost always have to specify that this isn’t an emotional sensation or a mere perception—an involuntary tactile sensation). We can also “pay attention” without specifying a sensory modality—which is not nearly so troublesome in English as “perceive” is.

Láadan handles attention similarly to perception; in Láadan, we have a non-sensory-modality-specific verb (il) which we can, optionally, make specific by means of an Instrument Case phrase. Again, the sensory modality information is optional; using “il” without Instrument is perfectly acceptable to mean “pay attention” without expressing a sensory modality.

The obsolete Láadan forms mentioned above were formed when Láadan was young and some of the people proposing words were strongly influenced by languages such as English where sense-words always incorporate the sensory modality. Láadan makes the “paying attention” primary and the sensory modality secondary—in fact, optional. Those three words, “ma,” “shu,” and “lóoyo,” will not be used in these lessons; nevertheless, it will be valuable if you recognize them should you happen across them.


Bíi loláad le thena wa.

I perceive, internally, joy.

Bíi il le ohena wa.

I pay attention, internally, to respect.

On the other hand, emotions in English are often attributed to “my heart,” “my soul,” “my very being.”

Láadan emotions are presented without any such Instrument; when using the Láadan internal perception/attention verbs (loláad and lohil), the organ of feeling for emotions is assumed, just as the organs of external perception are assumed in English. To use an Instrument with internal perception/attention would feel as superfluous as an English speaker stating “I smell it with my nose.”

Bíi mehom thul shoneth wa.

The parents teach peace.

Báa mehom thul shoneth bebáanan?

How (using what) do the parents teach peace?

Bíi mehom thul shoneth shalenan i danenan wa.

The parents teach peace with (using) courtesy and with (using) language.


Bíi dom le únanú eril thel Ána dimeth nudim wa.

I remember how (using what) Anna brought the container hither.


Bíi sháad Méri bode wa.

Mary comes from the mountain.

Báa sháad Méri bode bebáanan?

How (using what) does Mary come from the mountain?

Báa sháad Méri bode wethesha óobe mazhenan?

Does Mary come from the mountain along the road by car (using a car)?

Ra, sháad Méri bode wilisha óobe eshenan wa.

No, Mary comes from the mountain along the river by (using a) boat.


Bíidu ada Doni mahinanan wi.

The Earth laughs with flowers. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

Possessive Instrument

Bíi sháad Méri bode wilisha óobe eshenan wa.

Mary comes from the mountain along the river with (using) a boat.

Bíi sháad Méri bode wilisha óobe esh lethonan wa.

Mary comes from the mountain along the river with (using) my boat.

It should come as no surprise that the Instrument Case suffix moves to the end of the Possessive Case phrase.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi eríli mewida with anath dim heshethunan neda wa.

2

Báa eril láad ehá oyinan únanú dóyom ábedá éesheth nedebe wáa.

3

Bíi eril il le thilith óoyonan, i thal be wa; aril meyod lezh beth bathanan i humenan.

4

Bíi eril il wohóoha wohéena letho ilith oyanan wáa; owa be.

5

Báa aril methóohim sherídan netha ábededim bebáanan?

6

Bíi dóham edin letha woshad woshath shalenan wa.

Incorporate the second noun as an Instrument; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi ulanin ehená emideth, edasheth, i ehotheth wemonede wemenedim wa.

áabe menedebe

8

Bíi eril mehel halá esheth boó wáa.

oma

9

Báa aril bel ebalá wodazh wobaleth wehedim?

bebáa

10

Bíi aril dóhada zháawith háawitheth wa.

wobil wolom

11

Bíi láad imá zho wilithuth wa.

oyu

12

Bíi eril mesháad hoshem edanátha olinede úushilisha obe wa.

wodóon woweth

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

The pregnant shopkeeper learned how (by means of what) the speaker taught Láadan to the family.

14

I hear and smell the sea; I can find it beyond this hill on foot.

15

My friend bought the pearl with her (by chance) money.

16

How (using what) does the banker make the work easy?

17

Is the old teacher traveling in the south with (using) a map?

18

Margaret sleeps where she cannot hear the children.

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Answers

1

Long ago people carried food in (using) only containers of grass.

2

The scientist saw how (using what) the farmer made the several sheep safe?

3

I tasted the fish, and it’s good; we’ll eat it with fork and knife.

4

My weary heart-sibling felt (paid attention, using skin, to) the water; it was warm.

5

How (using what) will your nieces visit the farm?

6

My cousin causes there to be perfect harmony with (using) courtesy.

 

7

The philosopher studies biology, dentistry and geography from autumn to spring.

Bíi ulanin ehená emideth, edasheth, i ehotheth wemonede wemenedim áabenan menedebe wa.

The philosopher studies biology, dentistry and geography from autumn to spring using many books.

8

The workers built (made) three boats.

Bíi eril mehel halá esheth boó omanan wáa.

The workers built three boats by hand (with (their) hands).

9

Will the baker take the soft bread to the store?

Báa aril bel ebalá wodazh wobaleth wehedim bebáanan?

How (using what) will the baker take the soft bread to the store?

10

The senior will cause the child to laugh.

Bíi aril dóhada zháawith háawitheth wobil wolomenan wa.

The senior will cause the child to laugh with a fun song.

11

The traveler perceives the sound of the river.

Bíi láad imá zho wilithuth oyunan wa.

The traveler hears the sound of the river.

12

The linguist’s grandchildren came from the forest through the fog.

Bíi eril mesháad hoshem edanátha olinede úushilisha obe wodóon wowethenan wa.

The linguist’s grandchildren came from the forest through the fog by (using) the correct path.

 

13

Bíi eril bedi wolawida wowehehá únanú om dihá Láadaneth onidadim wa.

14

Bíi láad le melath oyunan i oyonan; thad redeb le beth hibosha hi ihée óomanan wa.

15

Bíi eril eb lan letho nemeth losh bethinan wa.

16

Báa dódozh loshá haleth bebáanan?

17

Báa im wobalin wohomá hanesha lubenenan?

18

Bíi áana Mázhareth úshahú thad láad ra be háawitheth oyunan wáa.

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