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Lesson 31
Vocabulary Interlude 5


Vocabulary

baneban

to forgive [ban (to give)]

Bée

Type-of-Sentence Word: Warning

betheb

mirror [beth (home) + theb (beth “mirrored”)]

bil

to be fun

demeren

curtain [dem (window) + ren (carpet)]

dash

tooth

hish

snow

hishud

hail [hish (snow) + ud (stone)]

ithel

shine; glow [ith (light) + el (make)] {YML}

leyan

to be brown

lish

lightning

lohil

to pay attention (to), internally

lorolo

thunder

óomasháad

to walk; to go on foot

nith

frost

ralili

to be dry [ra– (NON) + lili (be wet)]

rizh

Conjunction: except [ra– (NON) + izh (but)]

shili

mist [ili (water)] {SH}

thóohim

visit [thóo (guest) + im (travel)]

úushili

fog [úuzh (bed-sheet) + shili (mist)] {SH}

yime

to run

With the new Type-of-Sentence word, “bée,” comes the verb “dibée” (to warn); of course, as a noun, “dibée” would mean “warning.”

Examples

Bíi wil hal beye wa.

I wish someone would work.

Báa nime hal ne?

Are you willing to work?

Bóo hal ne.

Prithee work.

Bó hal ne.

Work!

Bée them hal ne wa.

(Warning) You need to work.

Bé aril hal le wa.

I promise I will work.


Bíi lohil le thenath wa.

I pay attention (internally) to joy.

Bíi loláad le thenath wa.

I perceive-internally joy (I am joyful).

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1

Báa eril néde eb woden wowithid belideth amedaraháde?

2

Bíi eril úuya omá; dutha edashá beth, i ril netháa be wáa.

3

Báa eril di edaná nedim údehú mewida lalomá losh bezhethoth hunedim?

4

Bée menáwam nezh úyahú mehóomasháad romidesha shinenil.

5

Báa nédeshub baneban wobalin wohimá rashaleth shem Hérel bethadim?

6

Bóo mebóodan nezh áruleth; eril nasháad be thulizh bethade wa.

7

Báa menáwí thil hizh déelade dem bethethu ebaláthosha obe e mesh?

8–10

Bóo aril thóohim na, Mázhareth, ledim wemaneya. Bíi ham nith náaleya, i sháad hish i hishud thoshesha heb wa. Bil elash hishesha, i methad mebenem lezh wohowa womathesha nil úyahú ham rahowaháalish.

In #2, did you correctly interpret “edashá?” Its root is “dash” (tooth); “edash,” the “science of teeth,” is known as “dentistry;” “edashá,” a “doer of dentistry,” would be a “dentist.”

In #5, did the word “rashal” (given here stripped of its case suffix) give you any trouble? “Shal” (courtesy; politeness; manners) is a known word; “rashal” is its opposite: (discourtesy; rudeness; ill-manners).

Also in #5, note that the verb “baneban” (to forgive), being a communication verb, takes as its Goal the person being forgiven (shem Hérel bethaCarol’s offspring). The transgression for which the person is being forgiven is its Object (rashalrudeness).

Note that #8, #9, and #10 comprise a small vignette. Sorry, story-writing “took hold” where there were supposed to be individual sentences. Notice that the second sentence changes the Type-of-Sentence word and the Evidence word, but retains the Auxiliary. The third sentence retains all three from the second.

In #8, please note that, as an “im” (to travel) compound, “thóohim” (to visit) takes the person or place visited as its Goal.

Translate the following into Láadan

11

Did some beautiful needleworkers bring shining lamps through Anthony’s door—and did he greet them?

12

Mary’s grandchild is asking (lovingly) whither (to where) Theresa will travel from the east.

13

Marsha promises to give Bethany food and a kettle of sweet milk (I dream).

14

Something extremely large arrived from the west; what is it?.

15

The philosopher pays attention (internally) to fear and joy; they are the same.

16

Michael ran; he ran to and from work; he ran at sunrise and sunset; he ran everywhere all the time; but he was not willing to run near the blighted place; it was not safe.

17–20

I live in the desert; it is almost always dry; there are never mist or fog. There are often wind and lightning and thunder, but it seldom rains. All is brown and gray almost the entire year—except in the spring after it rains; a billion small plants flower at that time, and the earth is extraordinarily colorful. The desert is beautiful then, for-sure!

In #14, did the English construction “something extremely large” give you any trouble? If so, consider that it’s shorthand for “something that is extremely large;” we have a Láadan construction that fills the same niche when there is only one verb and one nominal. The verb “be large” is “rahíya;” “be extremely large” would be “rahíyahul;” the nominal (pronoun, in this case) “something” is, of course, “beye;” therefore, “something extremely large” could very nicely be expressed “worahíyahul wobeye.”

In #16, we use “woho” (all; every) in some new ways. Formally, “everywhere” would be “hothesha woho” (in/at every place) and “all the time” would be “hatheya woho” (at every time). When used thus formally, a postposition takes no affixes. However, less formally, we lose the noun and apply the case suffix directly to the erstwhile postposition; it fulfills a role similar to a pronoun in this usage.

Also in #16, did you have any trouble with the adjective “blighted”? A blighted place is anything but thriving. Try “ratháa”.

Another “vignette” took the place of the last several sentences again here. In the penultimate sentence of the vignette, did you have any trouble forming a Láadan word for “at that time?” The English “this/that” is “hi” in Láadan. Using “hi” as a Time Case element, we derive “hiya.” Please do note that the unraised tone of the “i” is all that separates this word from “híya” (be small).

Also note the subtle distinction between “hiya” (at this/that time) [hi (Demo1) + –ya (TIME)] and “núuya” (then) [núu (there) + –ya (TIME)] in the last sentence.

An idiomatic expression is introduced at the very end of the final sentence of the vignette. The emphatic affirmation of the preceding statement, rendered in English “for-sure,” is “hulehul” (for-sure) [–hul (DEGextreme)].

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Answers

1

Did the helpful man want to buy the house from the dancer?

2

The teacher was in pain; the dentist healed her, and now she’s thriving again.

3

Did the linguist tell you whence the singers carried their money northward?

4

[Warning] Stay calm (you, several) when you walk between the wild animals.

5

Does the old traveler intend to forgive Carol’s offspring for the rudeness?

6

Prithee (you-few), rescue the wee kitten; it departed from its mother.

7

Are those vines growing from the garden through or across the window of the baker’s home?

8–10

Prithee visit me, my dear Margaret, in winter. There will be frost at night, and snow and hail will come down from the sky. It will be fun to play in the snow, and we can stay inside a warm building when it is extraordinarily cold.

 

11

Báa eril mebel mewoháya wodathimá beyen mewohithel wohithedaleth áath Ánetheni bethosha obe—i dibithim be beneth?

12

Bíi dibáali hoshem Méri betha údimú aril im Therísha henede wáa.

13

Bíi dibé ban Másha anath i dizh womeénan wolalethuth Bétheni bedim we.

14

Bíi eril nosháad worahíyahul wobeye honede wáa; báa be bebáam?

15

Bíi lohil ehená héeyath i thenath; mezhe bezh wi.

16

Bíi eril yime Máyel wáa; yime be haledim i halede; yime be nasháaleya i nanáaleya; yime be wohosha wohoya; izh nime yime ra be woratháa wohothesha thoma; yom ra be.

17–20

Bíi habelid le shéesha wa; ham ralili hadihad rano; meham shili e úushili rahadihad. Meham yul i lish i lorolo hatheya menedebe, izh ham lali hatheya nedebe. Leyan i líithin abesh hathóolethameya wum rano—rizh wemeneya laliya aril; memahina mewohíya wodala merod hiya, i liriháalish doni. Hóya shée núuya, hulehul!

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