[Back to Table of Contents]
Prev: [Your Turn 4]
Next: [Goal Case]
[Printable (pdf) version of this lesson]

Lesson 29
Associate Case


Vocabulary

alehale

to “music”; to make music (to sing, to whistle, to play a musical instrument)

eba

spouse

habelid

to dwell; to live (in/at/with)

hish

snow

hishud

hail [hish (snow) + ud (stone)]

lish

lightning

lorolo

thunder

nith

frost

óomasháad

to walk; to go on foot

ulanin

to study

Associate Case

[VP CP–S CP–O CP–Mann
CP–Instr CP–Associate]

To mark a Case Phrase as an Associate (with whom something is done, as in English “I danced with her.”), add the ending –den.” If you want to indicate that there is pleasure in the association, you may use the alternative Associate marker –dan;” –den is a neutral form.

Note that, though the English translation may seem similar (both can be termed “with”), the Associate Case is distinct from the Instrument Case. One uses an Instrument (as in “I eat with a spoon” “Bíi yod le badanan wa,”) ; one is accompanied by an Associate (as in “I eat with a friend” “Bíi yod le laneden wa,” —or, better yet, “Bíi yod le lanedan wa.”).

Along with the Associate Case comes the conjunction “údenú” (with whom/what). It introduces a clause that fulfills the Associate case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know with whom the woman works.”

Examples

Bíi hal behid wa.

He works.

Báa hal behid bebáaden?

With (accompanied by) whom does he work?

Bíi hal behid lanedan wa.

He works with (accompanied by, pleasurably) a friend.

Bíi hal behid Méri beden wa.

He works with (accompanied by) Mary.

Bíi hal behid lan Méri bethodan wa.

He works with (accompanied by, pleasurably) Mary’s friend.

By this time it should be routine to note that personal names do not take suffixes, as in the fourth and fifth examples above, and that the Case ending will move to the end of the Possessive case phrase, as in the fifth.

Bíi medibíi bezh údenú hal le wa.

They (few) declare with whom he works.


Bíi mehal bezh hiden wa.

They (few) work with this/that (person).

Bíi mehal bezh zheden wa.

They work with the same (person).

Bíi mehal bezh beyeden wa.

They work with someone.

Bíi mehal bezh raden wa.

They work with no-one.

Bíi mehal bezh lan raden wa.

They work with anyone but a friend.

Bíi mehal bezh hizh hizheden wa.

They work with each other.

Notice the pair of examples using “raden[ra– (NON) + –den (ASSOC)]. The first of these is a straightforward statement that the Associate Case does not apply. The second, on the other hand, states that the case does apply, but that the noun it would be applied to absolutely does not. In effect, this example excludes this noun from the Associate Case function.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Báa mehalehale berídan ehátha omáden bath?

2

Bíi habelid duthahá héena nayaháthodan i shamid bezhethoden nib wa.

3

Bíi mehil ehashá i shoná wohaba wohanath óoyonan wothádan wáa.

4

Báa menédeshub mehim hoshem Másha betha mazhenan bebáaden?

5

Bíi néde benem ebalá lan bethodan nedebe wa.

6

Bóo dibáa na údenú meháana háashem belidátha ashonenal.

In #2, did you understand the word “duthahá” (healer) [dutha (to heal) + –á (DOER)]?

And, in #3, how about “wothá” (wise person; sage—not the herb) [woth (wisdom) + –á (DOER)]?

Incorporate the second noun as an Associate (* indicates pleasure in the association); translate into English before and after.

7

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá badanan?

sherídan betha

8

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh wa.

*edin letha

9

Bíi aríli melo withizh merod beróo ril medibóo menosháad len wáa.

eshoná hizh

10

Bóo mehel nazh wohahí woháabeth nidi thodinan hi.

Mázhareth

11

Bíi eril mahinin le yuth méeshenal yamenan wa.

*hoberídanizh letha

12

Báa aril lamith néehá nem Máyel bethoth woho?

loshá

Notice in #9 that, even though we have a verb that carries the plural, we can still specify the number (or “several,” “many,” or even “all” or “none”) by placing a quantifier after the Case Phrase.

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

The moon clearly can be present with the sun or with the many stars.

14

I understand the traveler sex-acted with (pleasurably) someone.

15

The worker remembers with whom the pregnant assistant studied philosophy.

16

The air dances with the earth and the sea; clearly it is the wind.

17

Did honored-your birth-siblings depart with (pleasurably) the philosopher’s spouse?

18

Clearly, only an extremely strong person would be willing to walk with thunder, lightning, snow, hail, and frost.

In #15, did you successfully form the word “ehen” (philosophy) [e– (SCIof) + en (understand)]? Of course, “ehen” also suggests “ehená” (philosopher) [ehen (philosophy) + –á (DOER)], which we use in #17.

top

Answers

1

Is the scientist’s aunt/uncle dancing with six teachers?

2

The healer lives with the caregiver’s heart-sibling and their eight domestic animals.

3

I understand an astronomer and a peacemaker taste fragrant food with a sage.

4

With whom does Marsha’s grandchild intend to travel by car?

5

The baker wants to stay with her/his several friends.

6

Prithee ask, beloved-you, with whom the carpenter’s young offspring are sleeping with love-as-for-heart-kin.

 

7

Did the old farmer eat with a spoon?

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá badanan sherídan bethaden?

Did the old farmer eat using a spoon with her/his niece/nephew?

8

My grandparent is needleworking a pillow.

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh edin lethadan wa.

My grandparent is needleworking a pillow with (pleasurably) my cousin.

9

I understand in the far future a billion women will rejoice because we-many now request to arrive.

Bíi aríli melo withizh merod beróo ril medibóo menosháad len eshonáden hizh wáa.

I understand in the far future a billion women will rejoice because we-many now request to arrive with these-few peace-scientists.

10

Prithee beloved-you-few, make another short book using this writing implement.

Bóo mehel nazh wohahí woháabeth nidi thodinan hi Mázhareth beden.

Prithee, beloved-you-few, create another short book using this writing implement with Margaret.

11

I cooked fruit pleasurably using a baking dish.

Bíi eril mahinin le yuth méeshenal yamenan hoberídan lethadan wa.

I cooked fruit pleasurably using a baking dish with (pleasurably) my great-aunt.

12

Will the alien count all Michael’s pearls?

Báa aril lamith néehá nem Máyel bethoth woho losháden?

Will the alien count Michael’s pearls with the banker?

 

13

Bíi thad ham óol rosheden e asheden menedebe wi.

14

Bíi eril shim imá beyedan wáa.

15

Bíi ril dom halá údenú ulanin wolawida wodená eheneth wa.

16

Bíi amedara shum doniden i meladen; be yulem wi.

17

Báa eril menasháad hena nitha eba ehenáthodan?

18

Bíi rilrili nime óomasháad wodohul wowith neda loroloden, lisheden, hisheden, hishudeden, i nitheden wi.

top