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Lesson 28
Your Turn 4


Vocabulary

áabe

book

bem

to choose; as a noun: choosing; choice {AB}

bil

to be fun

bom

household oil

deheni

meat

demáazh

tractor [mazh (automobile)]

dimóowa

stove [dim (container) + óowa (fire)]

–din
–bin
–in

Suffix (various): “Process of.” Morpheme with 3 forms; default form: –din.
• When it follows a consonant the “d” drops away, leaving –in.
• When it follows a vowel (or vowel pair) that occurs after “b” or “m” or “w,” the “d” changes to “b,” giving –bin.
• In all other environments, the default form, –din, is retained.

dórawulúd

to repair; to mend; to cause to be unbroken [dó– (CAUSEto) + ra– (NON) + wulúd (be broken)]

duth

to use

edeni

bean

emahiná

chef [e– (SCIof) + mahin (cooking pot) + –á (DOER)]

hathóoletham

[hath (time) + óol (moon) = hathóol (month) + tham (circle)] literally “circle of months”

hohal

workplace; office [hoth (place) + hal (work)]

iliwush

mop [ili (water) + wush (broom)]

laheb

spice

máan

salt

óob

oven

óowathon

pepper [óowa (fire) + thon (seed)] {AB}

shel

to be rigorous

shi

to please

thesh

herb

thibeb

cooking implement

thod

to write

thodi

writing implement. Informal form for “dalelethodewan” [dalel (made-thing) + thod (write) + –wan (PURP)]

wush

broom [onomatopoeia]

yam

baking dish

The new suffix –din/–bin/–in (PROCof) is the formalization of an informal suffix used by those forming Láadan words ever since Suzette Haden Elgin, who used it in words such as boóbin (braid)—whose only official etymology is [boó (three)] which can now be expanded to [boó (three) + –din/–bin/–in (PROCof)]—and zháadin (menopause)—official etymology: [zháa (wrinkle, in skin)]; new etymology: [zháa– (SENIOR) + –din/–bin/–in (PROCof)]; note the second-generation’s extension of “zháa” (wrinkle) to a suffix covering the “senior” life-stage. Another form using the nascent suffix was Sharla Hardy’s “dashobin” (to chew) [dashobe (bite) + –din/–bin/–in (PROCof)]; regrettably, a syllable was dropped out in forming this word, whose strictly formal shape would have been “dashobebin.”

The etymology of “dórawulúd” (repair) references or suggests three more words: “wulúd” (be broken) [wud (part, as of a machine)], “dówulúd” (to break; cause to be broken), and “rawulúd” (be unbroken). Of course, either of the non-negated “wulúd” forms can be rendered with the pejorative “lh” in place of the “l,” giving “wulhúd” (be shattered) and “dówulhúd” (to shatter; cause to be shattered).

The etymology of “emahiná” (chef) also suggests “emahin” (cookery science) [e– (SCIof) + mahin (cooking pot)].

In the definition for “hathóoletham” (year), we see “hathóol” (month) [hath (time) + óol (moon)].

In the etymology for “óowathon” (pepper), we see “óowa” (fire) [owa (be warm)].

English Text

My Work

2My mother’s work is cleaning. She cleans many families’ houses. She also cleans workplaces. She uses brooms, mops, and cloths. She must be rigorous because peoples’ health might be in danger. The work is not fun, but it’s good work.

3My father is a teacher. He teaches using books, writing implements, and paper. He also uses games; he tries to make learning fun because it is very important.

4My uncle repairs automobiles and tractors using many tools and skills. If he does his work well, many people can come/go safely.

5My aunt is a chef. She cooks using many cooking implements, cooking pots, and baking dishes. She also uses refrigerators, stoves, and ovens. She cooks meat, beans, vegetables, and fruit using oil, spices, herbs, sugar, salt, and pepper. She really likes to create new foods; she often uses cheese.

6I’m sixteen, and I must now choose what my work will be.

My Láadan Translation with Morphemic Analysis & Retranslation into English

My Work

Hal Letho

Hal

Work

Letho

I + Poss

My Work


2My mother’s work is cleaning. She cleans many families’ houses. She also cleans workplaces. She uses brooms, mops, and cloths. She must be rigorous because peoples’ health might be in danger. The work is not fun, but it’s necessary work.

2Bíi ril hal thulizhetho letha dóhéthem wa. Éthe ba belid onidathoth menedebe. Éthe ba hohaleth íi. Duth ba wusheth, iliwusheth, i odeth. Dush shel ba beróo rilrili merayom lam withetha. Bil ra hal, izh be wothem wohalem.

2

Bíi

DECL

ril

PRES

hal

Work

thulizhetho

Parent + FEM = Mother + POSS

letha

I + POSSbirth

dóhéthem

CAUSEto + BeClean + IDENT

wa.

MYPERC

Éthe

BeClean

ba

XLove1

belid

House

onidathoth

Family + POSS + OBJ

menedebe.

#>5

Éthe

BeClean

ba

XLove1

hohaleth

WorkPlace + OBJ

íi.

Also

Duth

Use

ba

XLove1

wusheth,

Broom + OBJ

iliwusheth,

Water + Broom = Mop + OBJ

i

And

odeth.

Cloth + OBJ

Dush

Must

shel

BeRigorous

be

X1

beróo

Because

rilrili

HYPOTH

merayom

PL + NON + BeSafe

lam

Health

withetha.

Person + POSSbirth

Bil

BeFun

ra

NEG

hal,

Work

izh

But

be

X1

wothem

REL + Need

wohalem.

REL + Work + IDENT

2My mother’s work is cleaning. Beloved-she cleans many family’s houses. Beloved-she cleans workplaces also. Beloved-she uses a broom and a mop and a cloth. Beloved-she must be rigorous because a person’s health might be unsafe. The work is not fun, but it’s needed work.


3My father is a teacher. He teaches using books, writing implements, and paper. He also uses games; he tries to make learning fun because it is very important.

3Bíi ril thulid letha omám wa. Om bi áabenan, thodinan, i melenan. Duth bi shidath íi; dudóbil bi bedi beróo othehul be.

3

Bíi

DECL

ril

PRES

thulid

Parent + MASC

letha

I + POSSbirth

omám

Teach + DOER = Teacher + IDENT

wa.

MYPERC

Om

Teach

bi

XHon1

áabenan,

Book + INSTR

thodinan,

WritingImplement + INSTR

i

And

melenan.

Paper + INSTR

Duth

Use

bi

XHon1

shidath

Game + OBJ

íi;

Also

dudóbil

TRYto + CAUSEto + BeFun

bi

XHon1

bedi

Learn

beróo

Because

othehul

BeImportant + DEGextreme

be.

X1

3My father is a teacher. honored-he teaches with books, writing implements, and papers. honored-he uses games, also; honored-he tries to cause learning to be fun because it’s extremely important.


4My brother repairs automobiles and tractors using many tools and skills. If he does his work well, many people can come and go safely.

4Bíi ril dórawulúd henahid letha mazheth i demáazheth edenan i olothenan menedebe wa. Bere hal ba thalenal, ébere methad mesháad with menedebe yomenal.

4

Bíi

DECL

ril

PRES

dórawulúd

CAUSEto + NON + BeBroken = Repair

henahid

BirthSib + MASC

letha

I + POSSbirth

mazheth

Car

i

And

demáazheth

Tractor

edenan

Tool + INSTR

i

And

olothenan

Skill + INSTR

menedebe

#>5

wa.

MYPERC

Bere

If…

hal

Work

ba

XLove1

thalenal,

BeGood + MANN

ébere

…Then

methad

PL + BeAble

mesháad

PL + ComeGo

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

yomenal.

BeSafe + MANN

4My brother causes cars and tractors to be unbroken with many tools and skills. If beloved-he works well, many people can come/go safely.


5My aunt is a chef. She cooks using many cooking implements, cooking pots, and baking dishes. She also uses refrigerators, stoves, and ovens. She cooks meat, beans, vegetables, and fruit using oil, spices, herbs, sugar, salt, and pepper. She really likes to create new foods; she often uses cheese.

5Bíi ril berídanizh emahinám wa. Mahinin bi thibebenan, mahinenan, i yamenan menedebe. Duth bi nithedimeth, dimóowath, i óobeth íi. Mahinin bi dehenith, edenith, medath, i yuth bomenan, lahebenan, theshenan, meénenan, máanenan, i óowathonenan. Shiháalish el mewobun wohanathu bith; duth bi ódoneth hath menedebe.

5

Bíi

DECL

ril

PRES

berídanizh

AuntUncle + FEM = Aunt

emahinám

SCIof + CookPot + DOER + IDENT

wa.

MYPERC

Mahinin

CookPot + PROCof = Cook

bi

XHon1

thibebenan,

CookImplement + INSTR

mahinenan,

CookPot + INSTR

i

And

yamenan

BakeDish + INSTR

menedebe.

Many

Duth

Use

bi

XHon1

nithedimeth,

Refrigerator

dimóowath,

Stove

i

And

óobeth

Oven

íi.

Also

Mahinin

Cook

bi

XHon1

dehenith,

Meat + OBJ

edenith,

Bean + OBJ

medath,

Vegetable + OBJ

i

And

yuth

Fruit + OBJ

bomenan,

Oil + INSTR

lahebenan,

Spice + INSTR

theshenan,

Herb + INSTR

meénenan,

Sugar + INSTR

máanenan,

Salt + INSTR

i

And

óowathoneenan.

Fire + Seed = Pepper + INSTR

Shiháalish

ToPlease + DEGextraord

el

Make

mewobun

PL + REL + BeNew

wohanathu

REL + Food + PARTV

bith;

XHon1 + OBJ

duth

Use

bi

XHon1

ódoneth

Cheese + OBJ

hath

Time

menedebe.

#>5

Often

5My aunt is a chef. Honored-she cooks using many cooking implements, cooking pots, and baking dishes. Honored-she also uses a refrigerator, a stove, and an oven. Honored-she cooks meat, beans, vegetables, and fruit using oil, spices, herbs, sugar, salt, and pepper. Creating new foods pleases honored-her to an extraordinary degree; she often uses cheese.


6I’m sixteen, and I must now choose what my work will be.

6Bíi ril ham láad le hathóoletham bathethab, i ril dush bem úmú aril hal letho wa.

6

Bíi

DECL

ril

PRES

ham

BePresent

láad

Perceive

le

I

hathóoletham

Time + Moon = Month + Circle = Year

bathethab,

#6 + #10 = #16

I Am 16 Years Old

i

And

ril

PRES

dush

Must

bem

Choose

úmú

CONJident

aril

FUT

hal

Work

letho

I + POSS

wa.

MYPERC

6I am now 16 years old, and I must choose what will be my work.

My Láadan Text

Hal Letho

2Bíi ril hal thulizhetho letha dóhéthem wa. Éthe ba belid onidathoth menedebe. Éthe ba hohaleth íi. Duth ba wusheth, iliwusheth, i odeth. Dush shel ba beróo rilrili merayom lam withetha. Bil ra hal, izh be wothem wohalem.

3Bíi ril thulid letha omám wa. Om bi áabenan, thodinan, i melenan. Duth bi shidath íi; dudóbil bi bedi beróo othehul be.

4Bíi ril dórawulúd berídanid letha mazheth i demáazheth edenan i oloth menedebe wa. Bere hal be thalenal, ébere methad mesháad with menedebe yomenal.

5Bíi ril berídanizh emahinám wa. Mahinin bi thibebenan, mahinenan, i yamenan menedebe. Duth bi nithedimeth, dimóowath, i óobeth íi. Mahinin bi dehenith, edenith, medath, i yuth bomenan, lahebenan, theshenan, meénenan, máanenan, i óowathonenan. Shiháalish el mewobun wohanathu bith; duth bi ódoneth hath menedebe.

6Bíi ril ham láad le hathóoletham bathethab, i ril dush bem úmú aril hal letho wa.

Comments

In the last sentence of the penultimate paragraph, the verb “shi” (to please) also covers the meaning “to enjoy.” To elicit this sense of the word, we simply have to consider that “we enjoy” that which “pleases us.” The Subject of a sentence using this verb will be the thing which pleases (in this case, “el mewobun wohanathu”—the making of new foods). The Object will be the one who is pleased (in this case, “bith”—honored-she).

Included here are two idioms we have not seen before:

The first: “ham láad S T #” (S is # Ts old) where S is the Subject, T is a unit of time (the Object), and # is a number or quantifier.

The second: “hath menedebe” (often) [hath (time) + menedebe (#>5)]. This idiom also suggests another: “hath nedebe” (seldom) [hath (time) + nedebe (#2-5)].

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