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Lesson 21
Your Turn 3


Vocabulary

a

love of inanimates

More about this type of
word in a future lesson

am

love for one related by blood

beye

Indefinite Pronoun (someone, somebody, something)

boó

three

More about this type of
word in a future lesson

bere... ébere

if... then

éeya

sickness, illness

–háalish

Degree Marker: to an extraordinary degree; utmostly

loláad

to perceive, internally [lo– (INT) + láad (to perceive)]

lhith

to fret [lh– (PEJ) + lith (to think)] {JLP & EC}

lhitharil

to worry [lhith (fret) + aril (FUT)] {JLP & EC}

lhitheril

to regret [lhith (fret) + eril (PAST)] {JLP & EC}

náwí

to grow; growth [ná– (CONT) + (life)] {AB}

nede

one

More about this type of
word in a future lesson

oth

to be important

rano

almost; nearly; not quite [ra– (NON) + no– (FINISH)] {AB}

rashe

torment [ra– (NON) + she (comfort)]

shama

grief for which there is external cause, but no-one to blame and no remedy

More about this type of
word in a future lesson

shebasheb

to die [sheb (to change)]

shin

two

More about this type of
word in a future lesson

wem

to lose

woho

all, every

More about this type of
word in a future lesson


Beye” means “somebody”—just one somebody. Like all the other pronouns, it can take the ending –zh to mean two to five persons, and the ending –n to mean many persons. It can also mean “something” and is made clear by the verb used with it.

Beye,” “beyezh,” and “beyen” can also be used following a case phrase to indicate that the precise nature of the noun(s) being discussed is unknown—as the English word “some” is used in sentences such as: “Anna perceived some fish,” (Bíi eril láad Ána thilith beyezh wa.) or “She closed some door,” (Bíi eril dórahu bezh áatheth beye wáa.)

Along with lhith, lhitharil and lhitheril (above) came “litheril” (reminisce) [lith (think) + eril (PAST)] and “litharil” (anticipate) [lith (think) + aril (FUT)]. All five of these are from {JLP & EC}.

A note about the words “bere” and “ébere:” Though an historical accident (occasioned by the fact that “r” is not linguistically a consonant in the same sense that “b” is), these two words were originally coined beginning with “br” which is an illegal consonant cluster. This was corrected by the second generation developing Láadan. Though we will not be using the obsolete forms, “bre” and “ébre,” you should recognize them if you should happen across them.

The new words “nede” (one), “shin” (two), “boó” (three) and “woho” (all; every) are all from a set of words to be presented more fully in a future lesson. For now, we just need to know that they are used postpositionally (that is, they follow the case phrase they modify).

English Text

The Boy and His Sick Sister

Once upon a time there was a boy. He had two sisters, and he loved tormenting them. Time passed, and he continued to torment them. They all three grew, but he didn’t stop tormenting them. And then one of his sisters became ill. She was very, very ill; she almost died. He worried. Time passed; he fretted. Time passed; finally, he regretted, and he realized something: he loved his sister, and he would be sorrowful in the extreme if he lost her.

Fear of loss may teach the importance of family.

My Láadan Translation with Morphemic Analysis and Retranslation into English

Háawithid i Wohéeya Wohena Betha

Háawithid

Child + Person + Male = Boy

i

And

Wohéeya

REL + Sickness

Wohena

REL + Sibling

Betha

X1 + POSSbirth

The Boy and His Sick Sister


Bíide ham háawithid wo.

Bíide

DECL + NARR

ham

BePresent

háawithid

Boy

wo.

MADEUP

There is a boy.


Thi be henahizheth shin, i a rashe behid bezheth.

Thi

Have

be

X1

henahizheth

Sibling + FEM = Sister + OBJ

shin,

#2

i

And

a

LoveInanim

rashe

NON + Comfort = Torment

behid

He

bezheth.

X2-5 + OBJ

He has two siblings, and he loves (of inanimates) to torment them.


Sháad hath, i nárashe behid bezheth.

Sháad

ComeGo

hath,

Time

i

And

nárashe

CONT + Torment

behid

He

bezheth.

X2-5 + OBJ

Time Passes

Time passes, and he continues to torment them.


Menáwí bezh boó, izh nórashe ra be bezheth.

Menáwí

PL + Grow

bezh

X2-5

boó,

#3

izh

But

nórashe

STOP + Torment

ra

NEG

be

X1

bezheth.

X2-5 + OBJ

They-three grow, but he does not stop tormenting them.


Id nahéeya henahizh betha nede.

Id

AndThen

nahéeya

BEGIN + Sickness

henahizh

Sister

betha

X1 + POSSbirth

nede.

One

And then one sister begins to be sick.


Éeyaháalish be; shebasheb rano be.

Éeyaháalish

Sickness + DEGExtraord

be;

X1

shebasheb

Death

rano

Almost

be.

X1

She is extraordinarily sick; she almost dies.


Lhitharil behid.

Lhitharil

PEJ + Think = Fret + FUT = Worry

behid.

He

He worries.


Sháad hath, i lhith behid.

Sháad

ComeGo

hath,

Time

i

And

lhith

PEJ + Think = Fret

behid.

He

Time Passes

Time passes, and he frets.


Sháad hath; doól lhitheril behid; i naloláad behid beyeth:

Sháad

ComeGo

hath;

Time

doól

AtLast

lhitheril

Fret + PAST = Regret

behid;

He

i

And

naloláad

BEGIN + PerceiveInt

behid

He

beyeth:

Indef1 + OBJ

Time Passes

Time passes; finally he regrets; and he begins to perceive-internally something:


am be hena bethath,

am

LoveBloodKin

be

X1

hena

Sibling

bethath,

X1 + POSSbirth + OBJ

he loves (for one related by blood) his sister,


i rilrili loláad be shamaháalisheth bere wem be behizheth.

i

And

rilrili

HYPOTH

loláad

PerceiveInt

be

X1

shamaháaalisheth

Grief(Ext,–,–) + DEGextraord + OBJ

bere

If

wem

Lose

be

X1

behizheth.

She + OBJ

and he will feel extraordinary grief (external cause, no blame, no remedy) if he loses her.


Bíidi rilrili om héeya wemethu oth onidathuth wa.

Bíidi

DECL + DIDACT

rilrili

HYPOTH

om

Teach

héeya

BeAfraid

wemethu

Lose + PARTV

oth

BeImporant

onidathuth

Family + PARTV

wa.

MYPERC

[Didactic] Fear of loss may teach the importance of family, as I see it.

My Láadan Text

Háawithid i Wohéeya Wohena Betha

Bíide ham háawithid wo. Thi be henahizheth shin, i a rashe behid bezheth. Sháad hath, i nárashe behid bezheth. Menáwí bezh boó, izh nórashe ra be bezheth. Id nahéeya henahizh betha nede. Éeyaháalish be; shebasheb rano be. Lhitharil behid. Sháad hath, i lhith behid. Sháad hath; doól lhitheril behid; i naloláad behid beyeth: am be hena bethath, i rilrili loláad be shamaháalisheth bere wem be behizheth.

Bíidi rilrili om héeya wemethu oth onidathuth wa.

Comments

English has many, many tenses and modes; its narrative tradition is to put a story’s action in the past, invoking many of its tenses to adjust to this tense-shift. In comparison, Láadan’s set of tenses is fairly limited. This is not a problem, but it is convenient that Láadan’s narrative structure is set in the present with the –de suffix on the Type-of-Sentence word; story events that take place in the past are rendered in the past with “eril” or “eríli,” and those in the future with “aril” or “aríli.” Of course, those merely supposed or hypothesized get “rilrili.”

By the same token, the “moral” of the fable in this story is introduced using “Bíidi,” the didactic-inflected declarative Type-of-Sentence word. Clearly, the story is over, and the lesson begins.

The verb “sháad” (to go; to come) is used here as part of the idiom “sháad hath” (time passes). Physical movement involves cases not yet presented; please be patient.

The noun “a” (love, of inanimates) is presented in this lesson—and then promptly used as a verb. This is perfectly acceptable and is a mechanism common among human languages; in this case, “a” as a verb stands for the longer phrase “loláad SUBJ ath” (SUBJ feels love). The overriding reason it’s that way in this story is because the “loláad” structure takes as its Object the emotion felt (the one toward whom it is felt is presented in a Case we’ve not yet seen); using the emotion as the verb allows the one toward whom it is felt to be the Object.

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