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Lesson 22
Source Case


Vocabulary

áabe

book

ábedun

shepherd’s or farmer’s field [ábed (farm) + dun (field)] {SH}

bod

dish

eb

to buy; to sell

hemen

bush

heshehoth

park [hesh (grass) + hoth (place)]

mina

to move

nu

here

núu

there

wehe

store (market)

Implicit in the etymology of “ábedun” (shepherd’s or farmer’s field) is a word which we haven’t seen yet: “dun” (meadow; field; pasture). We’ll just “sneak this one in.” We’ll call it a two-for-one.

The verb “eb” means “to buy” and “to sell” just as “sháad” means “to go” and “to come,” and “bel” means “to bring” and “to take.” This difference (called “deixis” by linguists) merely refers to the direction in which the action happens. For example, if I traveled from the sea to the mountain, an English speaker at the mountain would say that I “came from” the sea; by contrast, one at the sea would say that I “went from” the sea; the difference is all in the point of view of the speaker. We will learn how to decipher which direction is being spoken about (Linguist-speak: “disambiguate the deixis”) in this lesson and the next.

Source Case

[VP CP–S (CP–O) CP–Source]

In the above, the new abbreviation VP means “Verb Phrase;” it stands for the optional Auxiliary + the Verb, the Verb Complex, or the -Verb (in the Identifer structure) + the optional Negative. We’ll be using this new abbreviation henceforward.

The Source Case identifies a case phrase as the origin or beginning-point of an action. To mark a Case Phrase as a Source, use the ending “–de.” If the word ends in a consonant, you’ll need to insert “e” to separate the consonants, of course.

Along with the Source Case, we get the conjunction “údehú” (whence; a fairly-archaic English term for “from where”). Not a question word, “údehú” introduces a clause that acts as the Source in its sentence; it translates as the “whence” in an English sentence such as “I know whence the birds fly.”

Examples

Bíi im withizh wa.

The woman travels.

Bíi im withizh heshehothede wa.

The woman travels from the park.


Bíi eril eb Máthu mudath wa.

The man bought (or sold) a pig.

Bíi eril eb Máthu mudath ebaláde wa.

The man bought the pig from the baker.

Here we see how to resolve the deixis of “eb.” Since we know that ownership of the pig was transferred from the baker, we know that Matthew was buying it (rather than selling it, which would have been to the baker).

Báa eril mesháad nen? listen to this sentence pronounced

Did you (many) come (or go)?

Báa eril mesháad nen bode? listen to this sentence pronounced

Did you (many) come (or go) from the mountain?

We still cannot disambiguate the deixis on “sháad,” however. We know that the movement being discussed was from the mountain. But “you” still could either have “come” from the mountain or “gone” from the mountain. To disambiguate “sháad” we need to know where the speaker is, relative to the Source.

In the next example, “nu” (here) is a special case since it specifies the place occupied by the speaker. It thereby fully disambiguates the deixis of “sháad.” One can only “go” “from here;” it’s not possible in English to “come from here.”

Báa eril mesháad nen nude? listen to this sentence pronounced

Did you (many) go hence (from here)?

Báa eril mesháad nen núude?

Did you (many) come/go thence (from there)?

Báa eril mesháad nen hide?

Did you (many) come/go from this/that place?

Báa eril mesháad nen beyede?

Did you (many) come/go somewhence (from somewhere)?

Báa eril mesháad nen rade?

Did you (many) come/go nowhence (from nowhere)?

Báa eril mesháad nen bebáade?

Whence (from where) did you (many) come/go?

The word “hence” (“nude” in Láadan) is a more-or-less archaic form in English; it means “from here”—Source Case in English! There are a few more English Source Case forms: “thence” (“from there”—“núude” in Láadan), “whence” (“from where”—“bebáade” in Láadan), and “nowhence” (“from nowhere”—“rade” in Láadan).

Bíi eril thel le anath wa.

I got the food.

Bíi eril thel le anath bodede wa.

I got the food from dishes/a dish.

Bíi eril thel le anath bodede hi wa.

I got the food from this/that dish.

Bíi eril thel le anath bodede beyezh wa.

I got the food from some few dishes.

Here we see the demonstrative and indefinite pronouns used to modify a Source Case phrase. This is different from the use of “hi” (this/that) or “beye” (some) or their plurals as the Source in that these pronouns occur postpositionally (after the phrase they modify) rather than being incorporated into the Case Phrase.

Possessive Source Case

Bíi eril thel le anath bod nethode wa.

I got the food from your dish(es).

As we are beginning to see as routine, we see how the Possessive and the Source interact. Just like the Object case suffix did, the Source case suffix moves to the end of the Possessive Case Phrase.

Source Conjunction

Another use of the English word “whence” is as a conjunction; the Láadan translation is “údehú:”

Bíi aril di le údehú eril thel le anath wa.

I shall tell whence I got the food.
I’ll tell where I got the food from.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi sháad ebalá mewohóya wobode wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

2

Báa eríli mehim with belidede? listen to this sentence pronounced

3

Bíi eril láad imá údehú mebel hena letha baleth wa.

4

Báa eril methel edin netha mahinath bebáade?

5

Bíi eril eb hoshemid halátha wohéthe womazheth Ána bede wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

6

Báa eril doth wolawida wohomid bebáath ábedunede?

Notice in #3, that we cannot yet disambiguate the deixis on “bel” (to bring; to take). It’s impossible, for the purposes of translation into English, to tell whether my siblings will “take” or “bring” bread from the dish.

Notice in #5, that we do not attach the Source Case suffix directly to personal names.

Incorporate the second noun phrase as a Source; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi aril memina héena letho mewoshane womideth wáa.

ábed

8

Báa eril thad eb Máyel dadem mudathuth?

bebáa

9

Bíi eríli shumáad wonée wodathimá wáa.

woleyi wohash

10

Bíi aril duhoób néehá wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

wohu wodem bethethu wothátho

11

Bíi eril ilisháad sherídan eshátha wáa. listen to this sentence pronounced

réele

12

Báa aril medom melalom mewobalin woduthahá?

urahu déelathu

In #10, did you have any trouble with the word “wothá?” From “woth” (wisdom) and –á (DOER), it means “sage” (not the herb) or “wise person.”

In #12, how did you do translating “duthahá?” From “dutha” (to heal) and –á (DOER), it means “healer.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

The farmer gets food from the earth (obviously).

14

The gardener caused a bad insect to leave the thriving bush.

15

Carol’s uncle promises to buy a plant from the weary storekeeper.

16

Whence flew we (many), long ago?

17

The dancer traveled from her safe place.

18

My grandfather will follow the assistant from the busy store.

How’d you do forming a word for “gardener?” Consider “déela” (garden); one who “does/makes a garden” would be a “gardener:” “déelahá.”

Did you have any trouble with the word “storekeeper?” We’ve learned “wehe” (store); a storekeeper would be one who “does/makes” a store: “wehehá.”

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Answers

1

The baker comes/goes from the beautiful mountains.

2

Did the people, long ago, travel from the house?

3

The traveler perceived whence my blood-siblings brought bread (where my blood-siblings brought bread from).

4

Whence (from where) did you (few) get the flower(s)?

5

The worker’s grandson bought a clean car from Anna.

6

Whom did the pregnant horse follow from the farmyard?

 

7

My heart-siblings will move the furry animals.

Bíi aril memina héena letho mewoshane womideth ábedede wáa.

My heart-siblings will move the furry animals from the farm.

8

Was Michael able to buy/sell the picture of the pig?

Báa eril thad eb Máyel dadem mudathuth bebáade?

Whence (from where) was Michael able to buy the picture of the pig?

9

The alien needleworker flew long ago.

Bíi eríli shumáad wonée wodathimá woleyi wohashede wáa.

The alien needleworker flew from a blue star long ago.

10

[I promise] the alien will try to jump.

Bé aril duhoób néehá wohu wodem bethethu otháthode wa.

[I promise] the alien will try to jump from the open window of the sage’s home.

11

The sailor’s niece/nephew swam.

Bíi eril ilisháad sherídan eshátha réelede wáa.

The sailor’s niece/nephew swam from the harbor.

12

Will the old healers remember to sing?

Báa aril medom melalom mewobalin woduthahá urahu déelathude?

Will the old healers remember to sing from the garden gate?

 

13

Bíi thel ábedá anath donide wi. listen to this sentence pronounced

14

Bíi eril mina dónasháad déelahá worathal wozhubeth wotháa wohemenede wáa. listen to this sentence pronounced

15

Bíi dibé eb berídanid Hérel betha dalath wohóoha woweheháde wa.

16

Báa eríli meshumáad len bebáade?

17

Bíi eril im amedarahá woyom wohath bethode wáa.

18

Bíi aril doth hothulid letha denáth woshóod wowehede wa.

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