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Lesson 14
Your Turn 2


Vocabulary

esh

boat

eshá

sailor [esh (boat) + –á (doer)]

–hal

Degree Marker: to an unusual degree

–hil

Degree Marker: to a minor degree; rather; somewhat

ili

water

ilisháad

to swim [ili (water) + sháad (to go/come)]

im

to travel

íthi

to be tall; to be high

líithi

to be white

líithin

to be grey

lili

to be wet

mela

ocean [me– (aggrandizer) + ili (water)]

melamid

dolphin, porpoise [mela (ocean) + mid (creature)] {CH}

réele

harbor

shumáad

to fly [shum (air) + sháad (to go/come)]

yide

to be hungry

Here we see two more of the set of Degree Markers. The first, –hal,” (to an unusual degree) is less forceful than –hul (to an extreme degree) which we’ve seen before. The second, –hil,” (to a minor degree) denotes that the action is less intense than neutral.

English Text

The Harbor

The day is beautiful. The stiff breeze is cool and moist. The sky is fleecy-clouded and blue; the clouds are high and white. The sea is green. The hungry seabirds are flying; fish and dolphins swim.

There are large boats and small boats. There are white boats and gray boats; there are yellow boats and green boats. The sailors are strong and beautiful. Their boats are fast, and they travel widely and are blessed.

My Láadan Translation with Morphemic Analysis and Retranslation into English

The Harbor

Réele

Réele

Harbor

The Harbor


The day is beautiful.

Bíi háya sháal wa.

Bíi

DECL

háya

BeBeautifulTime

sháal

Day

wa.

MYPERC

The day is beautiful.


The stiff breeze is cool and moist.

Rahowahil i lilihil yulehal.

Rahowahil

NON + BeWarm = BeCold + DEGminor

i

And

lilihil

BeWet + DEGminor

yulehal.

Wind + DEGunusual

The unusually strong wind is cold to a minor degree and wet to a minor degree.


The sky is fleecy-clouded and blue; the clouds are high and white.

Bol i leyi thosh; mehíthi i melíithi boshum.

Bol

BeFleecyClouded

i

And

leyi

BeBlue

thosh;

Sky

mehíthi

PL + BeHigh

i

And

melíithi

PL + BeWhite

boshum.

Cloud

The sky is fleecy-clouded and blue; the clouds are high and white.


The sea is green.

Liyen mela.

Liyen

BeGreen

mela.

Ocean

The ocean is green.


The hungry seabirds are flying; fish and dolphins swim.

Meshumáad mewoyide wobabí melathu; mehilisháad thili i melamid.

Meshumáad

PL + Air + ComeGo = Fly

mewoyide

PL + REL + BeHungry

wobabí

REL + Bird

melathu

Ocean + PARTV

mehilisháad

PL + Water + ComeGo = Swim

thili

Fish

i

And

melamid.

Dolphin

The hungry birds of the ocean fly; fish and dolphins swim.


There are large boats and small boats.

Bíi meham meworahíya wohesh i mewohíya wohesh wa.

Bíi

DECL

meham

PL + BePresent

meworahíya

PL + REL + NON + BeSmall = BeLarge

wohesh

REL + boat

i

And

mewohíya

PL + REL + BeSmall

wohesh

REL + Boat

wa.

MYPERC

There are large boats and small boats.


There are white boats and gray boats; there are yellow boats and green boats.

Meham mewolíithi wohesh i mewolíithin wohesh; meham mewoléli wohesh i mewoliyen wohesh.

Meham

PL + BePresent

mewolíithi

PL + REL + BeWhite

wohesh

REL + Boat

i

And

mewolíithin

PL + REL + BeGray

wohesh;

REL + Boat

meham

PL + BePresent

mewoléli

PL + REL + BeYellow

wohesh

REL + Boat

i

And

mewoliyen

PL + REL + BeGreen

wohesh.

REL + Boat

There are white boats and gray boats; there are yellow boats and green boats.


The sailors are strong and beautiful.

Medo i meháya eshá.

Medo

PL + BeStrong

i

And

meháya

PL + BeBeautiful

eshá.

Boat + DOER = Sailor

The sailors are strong and beautiful.


Their boats are fast, and they travel widely and are blessed.

Meralóolo esh benetho, i mehimehal i mehothel ben.

Meralóolo

PL +NON + BeSlow = BeQuick

esh

Boat

benetho,

X>5 + POSS

i

And

mehimehal

PL + Travel + DEGunusual

i

And

mehothel

PL + BeBlessed

ben.

X>5

Their boats are quick, and they travel to an unusual degree and are blessed.

My Láadan Text

Réele

Bíi háya sháal wa. Rahowahil i lilihil yulehal. Bol i leyi thosh; mehíthi i melíithi boshum. Liyen mela. Meshumáad mewoyide wobabí melathu; mehilisháad thili i melamid.

Bíi meham meworahíya wohesh i mewohíya wohesh wa. Meham mewolíithi wohesh i mewolíithin wohesh; meham mewoléli wohesh i mewoliyen wohesh. Medo i meháya eshá. Meralóolo esh benetho, i mehimehal i mehothel ben.

Comments

We’ve used the new Degree Markers in some routine, normative ways: rahowahil (cool, a minor degree of coldness); lilihil (moist, a minor degree of wetness). We also use them in some more advanced ways: yulehal (stiff breeze, an unusual degree of wind); mehimehal (travel widely, an unusual degree of traveling). These are good examples of perfectly acceptable uses for any of the Degree Markers.

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