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Lesson 13
Translation 2


Vocabulary

den

to help

ná–

Prefix (verb): continue to VERB; keep on VERBing

rado

to be weak [ra– (NON) + do (be strong)]

sháad

to come; to go

zho

sound

Láadan Text

Bíi medi omá i háawith wa.

Bíi di omá wa, “Bíide hal worahíya wohonida, i tháa déela benetho wo. Thal ro; wam shum. Mezho babí, i áya zho benethu. Tháa hesh. Meliyen dala, i mehaba mewolaya womahina benethu. Amedara i oób rul, id ada wolawida woberídan. Dunasháad wodo wohomid, izh óoha i rado wobalin wohothulid.”

Bíi di háawith wa, “Bíi náham ra worathal wohomid wa.”

Bíi di omá wa, “Báade duden ne? Bíide u urahu wo.”

Bíi di háawith wa, “Bíide den le, id rahu urahu wo. I náham omid.”

Id mehada háawith i omá.

My English Translation with Morpheme-by-Morpheme Analysis

Due to the difficulty in concisely translating a 3rd person singular, gender-neutral pronoun into English, I’ll be using “X” to represent all third-person pronouns in all Morpheme-by-Morpheme Analyses from this point on.

Bíi medi omá i háawith wa.

Bíi

DECL

medi

PL + Speak

omá

Teach + DOER = Teacher

i

And

háawith

Child

wa.

MYPERC

The teacher and a child are speaking.


Bíi di omá wa, “Bíide hal worahíya wohonida, i tháa déela benetho wo. Thal ro; wam shum. Mezho babí, i áya zho benethu. Tháa hesh. Meliyen dala, i mehaba mewolaya womahina. Amedara i oób rul, id ada wolawida woberídan. Dunasháad wodo wohomid, izh óoha i rado wobalin wohothulid.”

Bíi

DECL

di

Say

omá

Teacher

wa,

MYPERC

“Bíide

DECL + NARR

hal

Work

worahíya

REL + NON + BeSmall = BeLarge

wohonida,

REL + Family

i

And

tháa

Thrive

déela

Garden

benethu

X>5 + PARTV

wo.

MADEUP

Thal

BeGood

ro;

Weather

wam

BeStill

shum.

Air

Mezho

PL + Sound

babí,

Bird

i

And

áya

BeBeautiful

zho

Sound

benethu.

X>5 + PARTV

Tháa

Thrive

hesh.

Grass

Meliyen

PL + BeGreen

dala,

Plant

i

And

mehaba

PL + BeFragrant

mewolaya

PL + REL + BeRed

womahina

REL + Flower

benethu.

X>5 + PARTV

Amedara

Dance

i

And

oób

Jump

rul,

Cat

id

AndThen

ada

Laugh

wolawida

REL + Pregnant

woberídan.

REL + Aunt

Dunasháad

TRYto + BEGIN + ComeGo = Depart

wodo

REL + BeStrong

wohomid

REL + Horse

izh

But

óoha

BeTired

i

And

rado

BeWeak

wobalin

REL + BeOld

wohothulid.”

REL + Grandparent + Male = Grandfather

The teacher says, “A large family worked, and their garden thrived. The weather was good; the air was calm. Birds were singing, and their song was beautiful. The grass was thriving. The plants were green, and their red flowers were fragrant. A cat danced and jumped, and then the pregnant aunt laughed. The strong horse tried to depart, but the old grandfather was tired and weak.”


Bíi di háawith wa, “Bíide náham ra worathal wohomid wo.”

Bíi

DECL

di

Speak

háawith

Child

wa,

MYPERC

“Bíi

DECL

náham

CONT + BePresent

ra

NEG

worathal

REL + NON + BeGood = BeBad

wohomid

REL + Horse

wo.”

MADEUP

The child says, “The bad horse wasn’t staying.”


Bíi di omá wa, “Báade duden ne? Bíide u urahu wo.”

Bíi

DECL

di

Say

omá

Teacher

wa,

MYPERC

“Báade

Q + NARR

duden

TRYto + Help

ne

You

Bíide

DECL + NARR

u

BeOpen

urahu

Gate

wo.”

MADEUP

The teacher says, “Were you trying to help? The gate was open.”


Bíi di háawith wa, “Bíide den le, id rahu urahu wo. I náham omid.”

Bíi

DECL

di

Speak

háawith

Child

wa,

MYPERC

“Bíide

DECL + NARR

den

Help

le,

I

id

AndThen

rahu

BeClosed

urahu

Gate

wo.

MADEUP

I

And

náham

CONT + BePresent

omid.’

Horse

The child says, “I helped, and then the gate was closed. And the horse stayed.”


Id mehada háawith i omá.

Id

AndThen

mehada

PL + Laugh

háawith

Child

i

And

omá.

Teacher

And then the child and the teacher laugh.

Free Translation

The teacher and a child are speaking.

The teacher says, “A large family worked, and their garden thrived. The weather was good; the air was calm. Birds were singing, and their song was beautiful. The grass was thriving. The plants were green, and their red flowers were fragrant. A cat danced and jumped, and then the pregnant aunt laughed. The strong horse tried to depart, but the old grandfather was tired and weak.”

The child says, “The bad horse wasn’t staying.”

The teacher says, “Were you trying to help? The gate was open.”

The child says, “I helped, and then the gate was closed. And the horse stayed.”

And then the child and the teacher laugh.

Comments

Did you notice the Evidence Words that were used? The person telling us about the teacher and the child is presenting it as her own experience (ending her sentences with “wa);” the teacher, in that account (it’s not presented as a story), is presenting her story as something made up to amuse the child (ending her sentences with “wo).”

Did you note the idiomatic usage of “zho” (sound) as a verb to mean (make a sound)? It varies from the English idiom, wherein “birds sing” (mezho babí) and, in some dialects, “kettles sing” (mezho dizh). It’s used in this sense when referring to animals or made-things that make a sound but do not use language. This differs from the verb “di” (say; speak; tell) and “lalom” (sing) which are communication verbs, and, as such, can take some case endings that we haven’t encountered yet to indicate the content of the utterance and the one addressed. Since linguistic content is not at issue, “zho” doesn’t take these case endings.

The word “sháad” means both “to go” and “to come”; more information on this will be presented in the lessons on the Source and Goal Cases.

Did you have any trouble with the translation of “nasháad” [na– (begin VERBing) + sháad (to go/to come)] as “depart”? Consider that one “departs” when one begins to go or come.

Did you have any trouble translating the Láadan word, “náham”? Consider the strict translation of the two word-parts involved: “ná–” (continue to VERB) + ham (be present). With those two parts, “continue to be present” would be “to remain; to stay”.

Author’s note about the third paragraph: I lack certain grammatical and vocabulary features to make it clear that the child had become “caught up” in the story and is inquiring as to her place in it. The teacher then creates a role in the story for her, to the amusement of both of them.

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