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Lesson 15
Auxiliaries


Vocabulary

ril

Auxiliary: present

eril

Auxiliary: past

aril

Auxiliary: future

eríli

Auxiliary: far past

aríli

Auxiliary: far future

rilrili

Auxiliary: hypothetical

wil

Auxiliary: optative mood (desire): “would that...,” “let there be...”

Additional Vocabulary

mazh

car; automobile

sha

harmony

then

to break

Wil shalisten to this pronounced is the standard greeting in Láadan; it means “Let there be harmony.” In speech and informal writing, a heartfelt wish or, as in this case, a greeting may appear without Type-of-Sentence Word or Evidence Word. This is perfectly acceptable because no one is going to be confused about the meaning.

Arillisten to this pronounced (later) is the standard Láadan leave-taking.

Time Auxiliaries

[(Auxiliary) Verb (Neg) CP–S (CP–O)]

When you need to indicate time in a sentence, put an auxiliary immediately before the verb. Auxiliaries never change their shape in any way, even if the verb itself is made plural.

Absent any auxiliary, present time is assumed. Subsequent to the occurrence of an auxiliary, in connected sentences, that time is assumed until another auxiliary occurs.

Examples

Bíi hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

You work (implied present-time).

Bíi ril hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

You work now (explicit present-time).

Bíi eril hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

You worked.

Bíi aril hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

You will work.

Bíi eríli hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

Long ago, you worked.

Bíi aríli hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

In the far future, you will work.
Some day, you will work.

Bíi rilrili hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

Let’s suppose you worked....
What if you worked....
You might work....

Bíi wil hal ne wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

Would that you worked....
If only you would work....
I wish you would work....

Wil hal. listen to this sentence pronounced

Let there be work.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi aríli dathim wodo wohábedá wi.

2

Báa eril thal bal? listen to this sentence pronounced

3

Bíi aril ralóolohul woliyen womazh amedarahátho wa.

4

Bíi eríli di omá wáa, “Báa yod shem bebáatha?” listen to this sentence pronounced

5

Bíi rilrili áana ra lanemid Máthu betho wo.

6

Wil amedara. listen to this sentence pronounced

Set the following in the tense indicated; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi aril memahina mewonée wodala wa.

past

8

Bíi eril melalom hena lanetha netho wa.

optative

9

Bíi rilrili othel woshóod wohonida Hérel betha wo.

far future

10

Bíi mehu mewolaya woháath belidethu wo.

hypothetical

11

Báa aril then urahu déelathu shonátho?

far past

12

Bíi mehoób omid Therísha betho wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

future

Notice, in #7: the Evidence Word “wa” (meaning “according to my own perception”) used regarding a future event. In most cases, a human speaker cannot have perceived what will happen in the future; in such a case “wa” would be understood to mean “according to my expectation;” expectation is a perception, albeit an internal one.

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

Elizabeth’s bird flew away, long ago.

14

Suzette’s pigs will be tired.

15

Might a blue stone teach?

16

The baby was beautiful; the young woman is beautiful (unusual degree); the old woman will be beautiful (extreme degree).

17

What if the amazed aunt were laughing?

18

Let there be stillness!

In #13, did you have any trouble with the English idiom “fly away”? In essence, it means “to depart by air”. We know that the Láadan word for “depart” is “nasháad” (to begin to come/go); we could use the verb “shumáad” (to fly) in a similar construction: “nashumáad” would mean “to depart by air” or “to fly away.”

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Answers

1

On some distant day the strong farmer will needlework (obviously).

2

Was the bread good?

3

The dancer’s green car will be extremely quick.

4

Long ago, a teacher said, “Whose offspring eats?”

5

Suppose Matthew’s dog is not asleep (hypothetically).

6

Let there be dancing.

 

7

The alien plants will flower.

Bíi eril memahina mewonée wodala wa.

The alien plants flowered.

8

Your friend’s birth-siblings sang.

Bíi wil melalom hena lanetha netho wa.

O that your friendís birth-siblings might sing.

9

Carol’s busy family may be blessed.

Bíi aríli othel woshóod wohonida Hérel betha wo.

Carol’s busy family will, on some distant day, be blessed.

10

The red doors of the house are open.

Bíi rilrili mehu mewolaya woháath belidethu wo.

Suppose the red doors of the house be open.

11

Will the peacemaker’s garden gate break?

Báa eríli then urahu déelathu shonátho?

Did the peacemaker’s garden gate break, long ago?

12

Teresa’ís horses jump.

Bíi aril mehoób omid Therísha betho wa.

Teresa’ís horses will jump.

 

13

Bíi eríli nashumáad babí Elízhabeth betho wa.

14

Bíi aril metháa mewohóoha womuda Shuzhéth betho wa.

15

Báa rilrili om woleyi wohud?

16

Bíi eril áya áwith; ril áyahal worabalin wowith; aril áyahul wobalin wowith wa. listen to this sentence pronounced

17

Báa rilrili ada womíi woberídan? listen to this sentence pronounced

18

Wil wam! listen to this sentence pronounced

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