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Lesson 60
Vocabulary Practice 9:
Names & Honorifics


Names

Given names in English, depite what the baby-name books claim, are not generally imbued with meaning. As such, they are transliterated rather than translated. Exceptions will occur; in fact, this author’s taken name, Amberwind, is much more satisfying when translated (Dathimithedeyul: dathi (needle) + mi (leaf) = dathimi (conifer) + thede (jewel) = dathimithede (amber) + yul (wind)) than when transliterated (Ámerewin, or some such).

That brings up the topic of family names. Dr Elgin never addressed this topic, so it has been left to the second generation. We’ve decided that, in line with Láadan naming conventions, wherein the name proceeds from the general to the specific, the family name will precede the given name.

There are, in English, various types of family names that can be translated; others will have to be transliterated. Some of the general types that can be translated are patronymic names (Albertson, Bettison, Johnson, Jones, Williams, Williamson, Roberts, Robertson, etc.), trade-names (Carpenter, Fuller, Smith, Taylor, Tinker, Wright, etc.), color-names (Black, Brown, Green, Grey, White, etc.), and place-names (Carlton, Fields, Rivers, Stone, etc.).

Patronymic (literally father-name) names will likely be the most difficult to translate, consisting as they do of a given name (almost always a male given name; Bettison—son of Betty—is the only one in the list above that is arguably maternal in origin, and even that one uses the male suffix –son). We partially translate the English suffix using “shem” (offspring) as a suffix to the transliterated given name. Among our list above are several that show the –son suffix; others show only what appears to be a plural (or perhaps a possessive that has lost its apostrophe); Láadan will use the suffix “–shem” for both of these. Other languages use other forms of suffixes to denote patronymy: Slavic languages –witz or –evich or –sky (feminine form: –skaya) or –ov (feminine: –ova); Spanish –ez (Portuguese: –es); and many others. Láadan would use –shem in translating any of these.

Generally speaking, trade names will be translated insofar as possible (where the vocabulary exists; names such as Fletcher, one who attaches the feathers to arrows, lack the necessary referrents in Láadan). Where translation is not feasible, they would be transliterated. These names connote that an ancestor of the family had, as an occupation, the profession or trade referenced; as such, and to mark these as family names rather than profession-related honorifics, they would take the –shem suffix.

Color names in English commemorate an ancestor with some notable feature in that color: eyes, hair, skin tone, or some such. Most common color names do have words in Láadan. As such, these names will also take the –shem suffix.

To mark place-names as a family name, we will once again employ the –shem suffix. Since we are already applying a suffix, we need not bother with a suffix to mark the part like –ton (town) or –ham (village); the remainder may be trade- or color-related and could be translated or it may be related to a given name and likely would need to be transliterated.

Names that do not fall into one of the above categories would likely have to be transliterated (or a Láadan name made up); in any case, it would feature the –shem suffix.

The advantage of translating names is obvious: the name is naturalized into Láadan; a transliterated name is forever marked as a borrowing. Nevertheless, it is important to note the preference of the person being named and adhere to that when referring to her—unless it is your intention to give insult.

Examples

Elizabeth Taylor

Oweháshem Elízhabeth

Carol Green

Liyeneshem Hérel

William Fields

Duneshem Wílem

Mary Jones

Zhaneshem Méri

Honorifics

“Honorifics” or “titles” are used in English with a name (eg, “Mrs Baker,” “Dr Brown,” “Sr Mary,” “Miss Edith”) or without (eg, “Miss,” “Ma’am,” “Sir,” “Doctor,” “Father,” “Sister”).

Another class of honorifics is relationship words (eg, “Aunt Carol,” “Uncle William,” “Cousin Anna,” “Grandpa Matthew”).

Unlike in English, Láadan honorifics are applied after the name, if any, they’re used with—just as we’ve become used to doing when using a pronoun to carry Case for a name. In fact, an honorific will do double-duty, standing in for the pronoun that carries case endings for a name as well as carrying the honorific information.

Also unlike in English, where “Dr Brown,” “Mrs Baker,” and the like are the norm, Láadan stresses personal relationships rather than mere professional/acquaintance relationships. One upshot of this focus is that the Surname-Honorific sequence will be rare in Láadan. Much more common will be Personal Name-Honorific or just the Personal Name or, if the name is not known, just the Honorific.

Professional Honorifics

Profession-based English honorifics are limited to very few high-status professions (eg, “Dr/Doctor,” “Sr/Sister,” “Fr/Father”). While in English is it common to address a physician as “Doctor,” it feels odd indeed to refer to a plumber or carpenter—or even a lawyer—in the same way. “Sister” and “Father” among Catholic worshipers are an addition to this very short list—likely some conclusion could be drawn as to the status ascribed to such people.

Láadan profession-based honorifics are available regardless of the trade or profession. “Ábedá” (Farmer) or “Omá” (Teacher) are as valid as “Eduthahá” (Doctor) or “Wíitham” (Clergy).

Examples

Doctor Suzette Brown
Doctor Brown
Doctor

Leyaneshem Shuzhéth Eduthahá
Shuzhéth Eduthahá
Eduthahá

Nurse Anthony Carpenter
Nurse Carpenter
Nurse

Belidáshem Ánetheni Onin
Ánetheni Onin
Onin

Teacher Marsha Lake
Teacher Lake
Teacher

Wiliduneshem Másha Omá
Másha Omá
Omá

Sister Mary Elizabeth
Sister

Méri Elízhabeth Wíitham
Wíitham

Non-Professional Honorifics

While some English honorifics are profession-based, most English honorifics refer to gender and marital status (Mister/Master, Mrs/Miss, sir, ma’am) and, in British English, degree of nobility. In forming a Láadan honorific, on the other hand, the feeling (neutral/loved/honored/despised) the speaker has toward the person referred to by the honorific is central; the age and gender are secondary; marital status and rank are not considerations.

Non-professional honorifics in Láadan are pronomial in form; that is, they are made using mechanisms we are used to seeing when dealing with pronouns. We begin with the second-person or third-person pronoun: (ne: you, or be: he/she); if the feeling we have for the person is non-neutral, we may optionally use the inflected form of the pronoun (na/ni/lhene or ba/bi/lhebe). Plural forms are permissible, should the situation warrant. We may then add an optional age-prefix (á–: infant/háa–: child/yáa–: teen/sháa–: adult/zháa–: senior) and/or an optional gender suffix (–izh: feminine/–id: masculine). The table below presents the singlular forms that can be formed in this way; the plural formations are straighforward.

 

Ø

Infant

Child

Teen

Adult

Senior

2nd
person

neut

Ø
F
M

Ne
Nehizh
Nehid

Áne
Ánehizh
Ánehid

Háane
Háanehizh
Háanehid

Yáane
Yáanehizh
Yáanehid

Sháane
Sháanehizh
Sháanehid

Zháane
Zháanehizh
Zháanehid

love

Ø
F
M

Na
Nahizh
Nahid

Ána
Ánahizh
Ánahid

Háana
Háanahizh
Háanahid

Yáana
Yáanahizh
Yáanahid

Sháana
Sháanahizh
Sháanahid

Zháana
Zháanahizh
Zháanahid

honor

Ø
F
M

Ni
Nihizh
Nihid

Áni
Ánihizh
Ánihid

Háani
Háanihizh
Háanihid

Yáani
Yáanihizh
Yáanihid

Sháani
Sháanihizh
Sháanihid

Zháani
Zháanihizh
Zháanihid

desp

Ø
F
M

Lhene
Lhenehizh
Lhenehid

Álhene
Álhenihizh
Álhenihid

Háalhene
Háalhenehizh
Háalhenehid

Yáalhene
Yáalhenehizh
Yáalhenehid

Sháalhene
Sháalhenehizh
Sháalhenehid

Zháalhene
Zháalhenehizh
Zháalhenehid

3rd
person

neut

Ø
F
M

Be
Behizh
Behid

Ábe
Ábehizh
Ábehid

Háabe
Háabehizh
Háabehid

Yáabe
Yáabehizh
Yáabehid

Sháabe
Sháabehizh
Sháabehid

Zháabe
Zháabehizh
Zháabehid

love

Ø
F
M

Ba
Bahizh
Bahid

Ába
Ábahizh
Ábahid

Háaba
Háabahizh
Háabahid

Yáaba
Yáabahizh
Yáabahid

Sháaba
Sháabahizh
Sháabahid

Zháaba
Zháabahizh
Zháabahid

honor

Ø
F
M

Bi
Bihizh
Bihid

Ábi
Ábihizh
Ábihid

Háabi
Háabihizh
Háabihid

Yáabi
Yáabihizh
Yáabihid

Sháabi
Sháabihizh
Sháabihid

Zháabi
Zháabihizh
Zháabihid

desp

Ø
F
M

Lhebe
Lhebehizh
Lhebehid

Álhebe
Álhebehizh
Álhebehid

Háalhebe
Háalhebehizh
Háalhebehid

Yáalhebe
Yáalhebehizh
Yáalhebehid

Sháalhebe
Sháalhebehizh
Sháalhebehid

Zháalhebe
Zháalhebehizh
Zháalhebehid


Presented in another way, the table at right shows the options when forming nonprofessional honorifics; simply choose one element from each column. As denoted by Ø, most elements are optional.

One further note: it is possible to form an honorific using a first-person pronoun—for instance in a social situation in which it becomes necessary to correct another’s way of referring to us. In such a situation, we might use a first-person pronoun; it is difficult to imagine another use for a first-person honorific in courteous discourse.

Age

Person

Number

Gender

Ø–
á–
háa–
yáa–
sháa–
zháa–

ne
na
ni
lhene
be
ba
bi
lhebe

–Ø
–zh
–n

–Ø
–izh
–id

Examples

Bíi eril di le Elízhabeth Hudim wa; dibó Sháabihizh ledim di le shon bethuth ninidedimehé.

I spoke to Queen Elizabeth; Her Majesty (adult, honored, female) commanded that I speak to you (many, honored, male) about peace.


Báa néde láad Méri Zháabahizh leth oyinan?

Does Miss Mary (senior, beloved, female) want to see me?

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1

Bóo dithed ne Elízhabeth Ebaládim; bíi them le thuzheth udathihéeya aril wa.

2

Báa medíbel Sháanizhizh leth ranath nizhedim?

3

Bíi bedina Wílemeshem Méri Omátho déeladáan Láadanethum sháaleya ril wáa.

4

Wil sha, Yáanihizh. Báa duredeb ni bebáath?

5

Bíid thad baneban ra le Thíben Sháalhebedim; náloláad le bina lhebedim wa.

6

Bíi aril radozh hal Zháanida wa; dam le ihehena i lolena hi rawáan.

7

Bíi eril mebithim ra lezh lawitheth raya wa; báa ril néde di Zháana bebáath lezhedim?

8

Báa tháa Hérel Bedihá? Bíi eril dush sháad Yáabehizh bedishodede duthahothedim wáa.

9

Bíith lhitharil le wa, Eduthahá; úuya le wohiwetha wohibidesha.

10

Bíilan thónahelasháana shem letha wa; elahela náaleya shin aril; litharil le hoshemeth thenahulenal—beyeya.

In #2, the prefix dí– (ALLOW) moves the “le” (I) as the Subject of “bel” (bring/take)—the one doing the bringing—to become the Object of “díbel” (ALLOW + bring/take)—the one being allowed; “Sháanizhizh” (you ladies) is the Subject of “díbel”—the ones doing the allowing. “Rana” (beverage), the Object of “bel,” has no other case role to occupy, so “díbel” is bitransitive (having two Objects). Confusion is unlikely; “beverages” wouldn’t be allowed to bring “me.” In the event that confusion were a problem, a full embedding would be something like: “Báa menon Sháanizhizh bel le ranath nizhedimehé?” (You Madams permit [I bring beverages to you]?).

In #6, did the phrase “hi rawáan” give you any trouble? The pronoun “hi” (this/that) refers to the topic previously under discussion; “hiwáan” would be “because of the foregoing.” Splitting off the case ending and using it with ra– (NON) in effect reverses the function of the case. So, “hi rawáan” states that, far from being “because of the foregoing” the action is “in spite of the foregoing;” it’s translated here “nevertheless.”

In #7, did you have any trouble interpreting the meaning of “raya”? It’s a time-case word with ra– (NON) as the time specified: “at no time, never.” It’s synonymous with “rahadihad.” Used in the past, as here, it means “never before” or “never until now.” If used in the future, it would have the sense of “never again” or “never from now on.”

Translate the following into Láadan

11

I shall ask Anthropologist Anthony where he (honored) studied anthropology.

12

[Love] You (few, beloved) will be asleep when your Aunt Margaret arrives from Arkansas.

13

Entomologist Michael and Farmer Marsha cooperate to heal the seedlings.

14

I had hoped that Singer William would now be welcoming Priest Bethany to our town.

15

The nurse greeted my sick great-niece, “Greetings, (beloved, infant) Little Miss.”

16

Matthew Green is extremely busy; he (honored, teen) has many things he ought to do for his family.

17

Gardener Teresa intends to care for herself (teen) using her own common sense from this week forward.

18

I shall beg Banker Mary—other than at the bank; perhaps she (adult) will be remorseful and not take my house away from me.

19

Peacemaker, how (because of what) are you (honored, senior) able to show lovingkindness to THEM (many, despised)?

20

Child, [didactically] we all are “they (many, despised)” in SOMEone’s perception; [lovingly] now do you (beloved) understand?

In #12, “arrive” is translated “finish traveling;” this uses additional vocabulary as well as reinforcing that any travel-type verb can have the English meaning of “arrive” or “depart” with the application of appropriate prefixes.

In #18, did you have trouble with the phrase “other than at the bank”? We’ve seen this type of construction before, but never in the Place case. Consider “at the bank” (loshebelidesha); if we want to reverse the function of the case to specify “anywhere but at the bank” we’d need to split the case suffix off from the noun and use ra– (NON) to reverse the case function: “loshebelid rasha.”

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Answers

1

Prithee call Baker Elizabeth; I need a cake tomorrow afternoon.

2

May I bring you ladies beverages?

3

Teacher Mary Williamson’s lesson today is about Láadan sentences.

4

Greetings, Honored-Teen-Miss. What are honored-you looking for (trying to find)?

5

[Angry] I cannot forgive despised-adult Steven; I’m still angry (Int,Ø,+) at despised-him.

6

The work for Honored-Senior-You will be difficult; nevertheless, I will demonstrate excitement (despite neg circ) and confidence (good).

7

We’ve never met a saint before; what do Senior-Beloved-You want to tell us?

8

Is Student Carol well? Teen-She had to leave the classroom to go to hospital.

9

[Pain] I’m worried, Doctor; I feel pain in my left testicle.

10

[Joy] My daughter just began menstruating for the first time; the celebration will be two nights from now; I’m looking forward to grandchildren with great joy—sometime.

 

11

Bíi aril dibáa le Ánetheni Ewithádim eril ulanin bihid ewith bebáashahée wa.

12

Bíili aril meháana nazh úyahú nohim Mázhareth Berídan nazhetha Araneshade wa.

13

Bíi mezheshub medutha Máyel Ezhubá i Másha Ábedá ádalathehéwan wa.

14

Bíi eril ul le rilrili elathóodi Wílem Lalomá Bétheni Wíithamedim miwith lenethosha nuyahé wa.

15

Bíi eril dibithim onin wohéeya wohosherídan lethadim wa, “Wil sha, Ánahizh.”

16

Bíi shóodehul Liyeneshem Máthu wáa; dinime shub yáabihid daleth menedebehóo onida bithada.

17

Bíi nédeshub naya Therísha Déelahá yáabeyóoth bash behóothanan híyahathede ril wa.

18

Bíi aril dithem le Méri Loshádim loshebelid rasha wa; rilrili lhitheril sháabe i raban ra belid lethoth lede.

19

Shoná, thad dam ni donidaneth lhebenehóodim bebáawáan?

20

Háawith, bíidi len woho “lhebenem” láa beyehóothosha wa; báali ril en na?

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