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Lesson 57
Repetition Words


Vocabulary

bada

repeatedly, at random

badan

repeatedly, in a pattern over which humans have no control

barada

repeatedly, in a pattern fixed arbitrarily by human beings

baradan

repeatedly, in a pattern fixed by humans by analogy to some phenomenon (such as the seasons)

baradá

repeatedly, in what appears to be a pattern but cannot be demonstrated or proved to be one

There is no interrogative form, so we cannot ask “In what sort of pattern does this occur repeatedly?

Originally, “barada,” “baradan,” and “baradá” were all coined beginning with “br,” a consonant cluster forbidden in Láadan. This was an historical accident (occasioned by the fact that “r” isn’t a consonant in the same sense that “b” is) and has been corrected by the second generation developing Láadan. Though we won’t be using “brada,” “bradan,” and “bradá,” you should recognize them should you happen upon them.

Additional Vocabulary

duthahoth

hospital [dutha (heal) + hoth (place)]

limlim

bell [onomatopoeia]

loshebelid

bank [losh (money/credit) + belid (house)]

–ú

Suffix: do-ee; one to whom a VERB is done {AB}

wéehoth

library [wéedan (read) + hoth (place)]

Repetition Word Syntax

The repetition [words] ordinarily go at the end of the clause [defined as: Verb Phrase + Noun Phrase(s)] over which their scope extends; the Evidence [Word] will, of course, occur at the end of the sentence—after the repetition [word]. The repetition [words] include repetition in their intrinsic meaning; they do not require any assistance (such as the prefix “ne–” on the verb) in conveying this meaning.

Examples

Bíi ril sháad le bethedim wa.

I am going home.

Bíi ril sháad le bethedim bada wa.

I keep going home again and again (but with no particular pattern to my visits).


Bíi memina ash thoshesha wa.

The stars move in the sky.

Bíi memina ash thoshesha badan wa.

The stars move in the sky (every night, despite what humans may think or try to do about it).


Bíi dóhéthe le betheth wa.

I clean house.

Bíi dóhéthe le betheth barada wa.

I clean house regularly (eg weekly: arbitrary period set by humans).


Bíi yod le wa.

I eat.

Bíi yod le háasháaleya wa.

I eat in the morning.

Bíi yod le háasháaleya baradan wa.

I eat every morning (by analogy to pattern of nature).

Bíi yod le baradan wa.

I eat regularly (in a pattern by analogy to nature).


Bíi ham yul wa.

The wind blows.

Bíi ham yul baradá wa.

The wind blows again and again (in what seems to be a pattern, but cannot be demonstrated or proved to be one).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Bíi eril dibíi ábedá wa, “Bíiya mehéeya dithemid letho bada wa.”

2

Bíi naya onin thul lethath baradan wáa.

3

Bíi meshim romid wemeneya badan wáa.

4

Báa dedide omá bedihádim bada?

5

Bíilan mehamedara lezh diídineya barada wa.

6

Báa ozh withid betheth bethu baradá?

Something similar to #1 could have been rendered as Bíi eril dibíiya ábedá wa, “Bíi mehéeya dithemid letho bada wa.” This would have emphasized the speaker’s perception of the fear in the farmer’s utterance rather than the farmer’s own acknowledgement of speaking in fear.

Add the indicated repetition word; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi eril óomasháad Másha ulinedim wa.

arbitrary-by-human pattern

8

Bíi meham ash thoshesha nasháaleya wi.

natural pattern

9

Bíi eril bóodan obeth letho rul nethoth yáanin bethode wa.

no pattern

10

Bíidu lothel le lalom wohowa wolali lomethehé wa.

unprovable pattern

11

Báa mebenem with belidesha nil náaleya?

analogy-to-nature pattern

12

Báa wéedan Mázhareth áabeth wéehothesha?

arbitrary-by-human pattern

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

The housekeeper cries from grief (Ext,–,–) off-and-on (no pattern).

14

Storms go from west to east across the plain (apparent-but-unprovable pattern).

15

The gardeners will plant vegetables, and their spouses herbs (analogy-with-nature pattern).

16

The child is obligated to go to sleep (arbitrary-by-human pattern).

17

Birds fly south in autumn (natural pattern).

18

The philosopher shows signs of joy (good) at learning (no pattern).

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Answers

1

“[fearfully] My cattle are ill repeatedly-in-no-pattern,” said the farmer.

2

The nurse cares for my mother repeatedly (analogy-to-nature pattern).

3

Wild animals copulate in spring-time (natural pattern).

4

Does the teacher speak in narrative to students betimes (no pattern)?

5

[celebratory] We dance repeatedly (arbitrary pattern) at the holidays.

6

Does the man dream of home sometimes (apparent-but-unprovable pattern)?

 

7

Marsha walked to the school.

Bíi eril óomasháad Másha ulinedim barada wa.

Marsha walked to the school repeatedly (arbitrary-by-human pattern).

8

There are stars in the sky at dawn.

Bíi meham ash thoshesha nasháaleya badan wi.

There are stars in the sky at dawn all the time (natural pattern).

9

My neighbor rescued your cat from her tree.

Bíi eril bóodan obeth letho rul nethoth yáanin bethode bada wa.

My neighbor used to rescue your cat from her tree every so often (no pattern).

10

[poetically] I know that the warm rain sings songs.

Bíidu lothel le lalomi wohowa wolali lometh baradáhé wa.

[poetically] I know that the warm rain sometimes (apparent-but-unprovable pattern) sings songs.

11

Are people staying inside houses at night?

Báa mebenem with belidesha nil náaleya baradan?

Do people stay inside houses at nights (analogy-to-natural pattern)?

12

Is Margaret reading a book at the library?

Báa wéedan Mázhareth áabeth wéehothesha barada?

Does Margaret read books at the library regularly (arbitrary-by-human pattern)?

 

13

Bíi delishe elodá shamawáan bada wáa.

14

Bíi mesháad rohoro honede henedi rabosha mesh baradá wa.

15

Bíi aril medala déelahá medath, i eba benetho thesheth, baradan wáa.

16

Bíi dush naháana háawith barada wáa.

17

Bíi meshumáad babí hanedim wemoneya badan wi.

18

Bíi dam ehená thena bediwáan bada wáa.

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