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Lesson 52
Opposites of Declined Emotions


The opposite of a “happy” (First Declension) emotion is, by definition, going to be an “unhappy” (Second Declension) emotion, and vice versa.

Vocabulary

radala

2nd

unfriendliness
[ra– (NON) + dena (friendliness)]

also: animosity, loathing, disgust

formerly 1st declension: radena, etc.

radedena

1st

perseverence
[ra– (NON) + dedala (frustration)] {AB}

rahihala

2nd

anxiety
[ra– (NON) + ihena (excitement)] {AB}

also: antsiness, apprehension, jitters, nervousness, wariness, overwhelm, desperation

rahithala

2nd

unhappiness
[ra– (NON) + hithena (happiness)] {AB}

rahohala

2nd

disrespect
[ra– (NON) + ohena (respect)] {AB}

rahuhala

2nd

harshness
[ra– (NON) + uhena (tenderness)] {AB}

also: hard-heartedness, jealousy, vengefulness

ralala

2nd

mistrust
[ra– (NON) + lena (trust)]

formerly 1st declension: ralena, etc.

ralolala

2nd

unconfidence
[ra– (NON) + lolena (confidence)] {AB}

ramala

2nd

callousness
[ra– (NON) + mena (compassion)]

formerly irregular 1st declension: raména, etc.

ranala

2nd

discontent
[ra– (NON) + nena(contentment)] {AB}

rathala

2nd

joylessness
[ra– (NON) + thena (joy)]

formerly 1st declension: rathena, etc.

rawala

2nd

ingratitude
[ra– (NON) + wena (gratitude)] {AB}

formerly irregular 1st declension: rawéná, etc.

Examples

Bíi loláad le radedena hal lethodim wa.

I feel perseverence (good) toward my work.

Bíi loláad le radara hal lethodim wa.

I feel animosity (Ext,+,–) toward my work.

Bíi loláad le rahihana hal lethodim wa.

I feel anxiety (Ext,–,+) toward my work.


Bíi dam be rahithama ledim wa.

X manifests unhappiness (Ext,–,–) toward me.

Bíi dam be rahohina ledim wa.

X manifests disrespect (Int,Ø,+) toward me.

Bíi dam be rahuhima ledim wa.

X manifests harshness (Int,Ø,–) toward me.


Bíi lohil le ralala halewáan wa.

I pay attention, internally, to mistrust (Ext,+,+) because of work.

Bíi lohil le ralolara halewáan wa.

I pay attention, internally, to unconfidence (Ext,+,–) because of work.

Bíi lohil le ramana halewáan wa.

I pay attention, internally, to callousness (Ext,–,+) because of work.


Bíi hal be ranamanal wáa.

X works discontentedly (Ext,–,–).

Bíi hal be rathinanal wáa.

X works joylessly (Int,Ø,+).

Bíi hal be rawimanal wáa.

X works ungratefully (Int,Ø,–).


Bíi hal be leda radedonawáan wa.

X works for me out of perseverence (foolish).

Bíi hal be leda radanawáan wa.

X works for me out of unfriendliness (Ext,–,+).

Bíi hal be leda rahihamawáan wa.

X works for me out of anxiety (Ext,–,–).

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1

Báa loláad Ánetheni rahithina deneya?

2

Bíi dam ehená rahohima; owáano il rawith beth wa.

3

Bíi dibó edalahá medónesha meworashon wodená bethohé rahuhalanal wáa.

4

Báa eril lohil Máyel ralarath ezhubádim rahahínal?

5

Bíi loláad eril thi ra háawithizh laneth ulaneyaháa ralolanath wáa.

6

Báa dutha Mázhareth imáth ramama betho rawáan?

7

Bóo mesháad i meshub nen thaleth abesheda ranina nenethowáan.

8

Bíi náhel Shuzhéth mewothem wodaleleth lodonal mewoshud wowithizheda menedebesha rathima rawáan wáa.

9

Bíi dam Méri rawala ban ehasháhóo binith bedim hithunanaleháadim wa.

10

Bíi aril náduredeb Máthu ril edeláad be eril thelh withidehóo losh bethotheháahéth radedunanal wáa.

In #3, the verb “dónesha” may have given you pause. Let’s build it from scratch. The root is “sha” (harmony). Next we add the prefix ne– (AGAIN) giving “nesha” (harmony again). And then the prefix dó– (CAUSEto) gives “dónesha” (cause to harmony again): “reconcile.” This word is not in the dictionary; it’s an on-the-fly formation of the type that Láadan makes so easy. Another formation for the English word “reconcile” might be based in “shon” (peace) or its opposite “rashon” (quarrel) rather than “sha” (harmony), with the differences in connotation that would bring: “dónórashon”?

Also in #3, we see the Type-of-Sentence word “” (command—usually to small children) used not to a small child. The distinction between “” (command) and “bóo” (request) is whether the person so addressed is allowed to refuse. In #3, the botanist is asserting that the assistants are not so allowed.

In #4, did the word “rahahí” give you any difficulty? It’s a straightforward opposite of “hahí” (brief; ephemeral) and means “long (of time); of great duration.”

In #8, did the word “lodo” present any problem? It’s the verb “do” (be strong) with the prefix lo– (INT). It encompasses the English “be brave,” as well as “be fortitudinous,” “be strong of character,” and a great deal more.

#10 has a relative embedding inside a standard embedding. This is, perhaps, the first time we’ve seen a double-embedding.

#10 also uses a new word: “thelh.” It is a pejorative-inflected version of “thel” (to get; to obtain) and means “to get by ill means” or “to get with ill intent;” the English short-form would be “to steal” or “to swindle” or a number of other things in that vein.

Translate the following into Láadan

11

Carol killed the insect out of loathing (Ext,–,–); afterward she felt joy (bad).

12

The student displays anxiety (Int,Ø,+) when studying housekeeping.

13

Prithee, honored one, inquire of the teacher whether the teen-woman who overate-as-sole-selfcare pays attention, internally, to unhappiness (Int,Ø,–).

14

The scientist speaks to the foolish king disrespectfully (Ext,+,+).

15

The busy chef harshly (Ext,+,–) warned the cook not to put that powder in the cooking pot.

16

A thief, obviously, mistrusts (Ext,–,+) everybody.

17

The gardener demonstrates unconfidence (Ext,–,–) as to whether the berries are sweet.

18

Prithee tell the resident who is paying attention, internally, to callousness (Int,Ø,+) that the group is worried for her.

19

Bethany’s discontent (Int,Ø,–) causes some discord in the classroom (I dream).

20

Is William unable to leave his house because of joylessness (Ext,+,+)?

In #13, we see a double-embedding: in this case, a relative clause is embedded inside an interrogative embedding. Since this is the first double-embedding you’ve been asked to create, perhaps a slightly diagrammed English version will make it easier:

Prithee, honored one, inquire

[does

{the teen-woman (who) overate-as-sole-selfcare}

pay attention, internally, to unhappiness (Int,Ø,–)?]

of the teacher.

Did you have any difficulty forming a word for “foolish” in #14? “Foolishness” would be the opposite of “wisdom:” rawoth [ra– (NON) + woth (wisdom)]. Used as a stative verb, “rawoth” (foolishness) would mean “be foolish.”

In #15 we see a couple of new words. A “chef” is a “doer of the science of the cooking-pot:” “emahiná.” Of course, that also introduces the word for “cookery; the science of the cooking-pot:” “emahin.” And a “cook,” being someone not-so-learned in “cookery-science,” is “anadalá” (literally, doer/maker of meals).

In #16, we see a new word. A “thief” is “one who steals:” “thelhá.”

In #18, we have two embeddings, but they are not nested one inside the other.

Another new word in #19: a “classroom” is a “learning room:” “bedishod.”

Another new word in #20: “to be unable” is a straightforward opposite of “thad” (to be able): “rathad.”

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Answers

1

Does Anthony feel unhappiness (Int,Ø,+) when helping?

2

The philosopher shows signs of disrespect (Int,Ø,–); therefore no one pays attention to X.

3

The botanist harshly (Ext,+,+) commanded that his quarrelling assistants be reconciled.

4

Did Michael pay attention for a long time, internally, to mistrust (Ext,+,–) toward the entomologist?

5

The young girl who had no friends at school feels unconfident (Ext,–,+).

6

Is Margaret healing the traveler despite X’s callousness (Ext,–,–)?

7

Prithee, you many, go and do good for all-that-is because of your discontent (Int,Ø,+).

8

Suzette bravely continues to make needed objects for poor women in many places despite joylessness (Int,Ø,–).

9

Mary is showing signs of ingratitude (Ext,+,+) to the astronomer who happily (bad) gave her a gift.

10

Matthew will perseveratively (bad) continue to try to find the man he believes stole his money.

 

11

Bíi eril dóshebasheb Hérel zhubeth radamaháalishewáan wáa; loláad be thuna aril.

12

Bíi dam bedihá rahihina úyahú ulanin be elodeth wáa.

13

Bóo dibáa ni ril lohil eril doroledim yáawithizheháa rahithimahée omádim.

14

Bíilan di ehá worawoth wohuhidedim rahohalanal wa.

15

Bíi eril dibée woshóod wohemahiná dóham ra be mezheth hi mahinesha nilehé anadaládim rahuharanal wáa.

16

Bíi loláad thelhá ralana withedim woho wi.

17

Bíi dam déelahá ralolama memeénan dalathamehée wáa.

18

Bóo dibíi ne lohil habelidá raminatheháadim lhitharil olowod bedahé.

19

Bíi nin ranima Bétheni betho rashath beye bedishodesha we.

20

Báa rathad nasháad Wílem belid bethode rathalawáan?

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