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Lesson 51
Second Declension Emotions


Vocabulary

bala

anger

also: pique, annoyance, irritation, irked-ness, miffed-ness, resentment, upset, exasperation, mad-ness, rage, fury

dedala

frustration

hishala

sadness [hi– (MINI) + shala (grief)] {AB}

lobala

depression, non-clinical [lo– (INT) + bala (anger)] {AB}

shala

grief

yala

embarassment {AB}

also: chagrin, humiliation

zhala

regret

also: disappointment

You will note the qualifier “non-clinical” in the definition of “lobala” (depression). This is a very important distinction. Non-clinical depression (also sometimes called “situational depression” is an emotional response to the sufferer’s life; it is nothing like the same as clinical depression, which is a neurochemical imbalance that can be soul-killing and even life-threatening if not treated appropriately by a medical professional.

Additional Vocabulary

doroledim

This word has no English equivalent whatsoever. Say you have an average woman. She has no control over her own life. She has little or nothing in the way of resources for being good to herself, even when it is necessary. She has family and animals and friends and associates that depend on her for sustenance of all kinds. She rarely has adequate sleep or rest; she has no time for herself, no space of her own, little or no money to buy things for herself, no opportunity to consider her own emotional needs. She is at the beck and call of others because she has these responsibilities and obligations and does not choose to (or cannot) abandon them. For such a woman, the one and only thing she is likely to have a little control over for indulging her own self is food. When such a woman overeats, the verb for that is “doroledim.” (And then she feels guilty because there are women whose children are starving and who do not have even that option for self-indulgence….)

leb

enemy

rasha

discord (not discord in the home) [ra– (NON) + sha (harmony)]

rashon

quarrel; argument (not used of an “argument” in a theory or an equation or proposition) [ra– (NON) + shon (peace)]

wihi

emotion

Second Declension Nouns

Similar to the first declension, there are six forms in this declension, of which those presented in the Vocabulary section are the most general. However, these six forms cover a lot more emotional “territory” than the first declension’s five do. Rather than “Reason(s),” the second declension refers to External/Internal Cause; in addition, the second declension speaks about Blame and Remedy. The details are most easily presented in a grid:

External/Internal
Cause

Blame

Remedy

Declension

Ext

+

+

–ala

Ext

+

–ara

Ext

+

–ana

Ext

–ama

Int

Ø

+

–ina

Int

Ø

–ima

External/Internal Cause asks the question about the emotion, “Is there some external situation that’s causing me to feel this way, or is the cause internal?”

Blame asks, “Is there someone to blame for the external situation that has me feeling this way?”

Remedy asks, “Can something be done about the situation?”

Suzette Haden Elgin defined the Second Declension in terms of the presence or absence of “Reason,” “Blame,” and “Futility.” She also included no option for “No Reason; Futile.”

In light of the consideration that there is always a reason for an emotional response, the second generation examined “Reason” and came to the realization that its presence was really External Cause; its inverse (No Reason) would be Internal Cause. We also reversed “Futility” into “Remedy;” as it seems more in keeping with actually dealing with the emotion.

We agreed with Suzette Haden Elgin that Internal Cause ruled out Blame. However, with the redefinition of “No Reason” to “Internal Cause,” “Remedy” becomes representative of doing the work to come to terms with the emotion; “No Remedy” would represent the inability or unwillingness to do that work. To encode that sixth emotional state (Internal; No Remedy), we added a sixth suffix: –ima which, with –ina,” forms a pair parallel to –ana and –ama.”

Examples

Bíi loláad le bala wa.

I feel anger which is caused by external event(s), for which I can blame someone, and about which I can do something.

Bíi loláad le dedara wa.

I feel frustration with external cause, for which I can blame someone, but about which I can do nothing.


Bíi lohil le lobana wa.

I’m paying attention, internally, to situational depression with external cause and no-one to blame, but I can remedy the situation.

Bíi lohil le shama wa.

I’m paying attention, internally, to grief with external cause and no-one to blame, but I can do nothing about the situation.


Bíi dam behizh hishina wáa.

She’s manifesting sadness (internal cause—blame impossible, remedy).

Bíi dam behizh yima wáa.

She’s manifesting embarassment (internal cause/blame impossible, no remedy).


Bíi di beye ledim zhalanal wa.

Someone speaks regretfully (ext cause; blame; remedy) to me.

Bíi di beye ledim baranal wa.

Someone speaks angrily (ext cause; blame; no remedy) to me.


Bíi eril nasháad behid elahelade dedanawáan wáa.

He left the celebration because of frustration (ext cause; no blame; remedy).

Bíi eril nasháad behid elahelade lobamawáan wáa.

He left the celebration because of situational depression (ext cause; no blame; no remedy).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Báa lothel bebáa eril loláad ebalá bana baledimehé?

2

Bíi dam ra bedihá dedama omádim édáanewáan menedebe wo.

3

Báa lohil amedarahá shara olob bethiwáan?

4

Bíi eril ada ehá yamanal wáa.

5

Báa eril éholob delishe Wílem leb imáthedim hisharawáan?

6

Bóo dibáa ne Ána bedim eril éthe be beth nethoth dedalawáan e yalawaáanehée.

Did you have any trouble with “éholob” in #5? It is comprised of é– (POTENTIAL) and “olob” (blow; trauma; injury). A “potential injury” would be a “threat;” when used as a verb as it is here, “éholob” means “to threaten.” As a communication verb, it takes as its Object the potential injury, and the person being threatened would be rendered in the Goal case; it almost goes without saying that the threatener is the Subject.

Change the emotion and/or its attributes to those presented; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi ril loláad odá zhara modi odethuwáan wáa.

embarassment

8

Bíi ril dam Bétheni shala beróo il ra huhid themehul withethu bethoth wa.

situational depression

9

Bíi lohil Ánetheni zhima worabun wodibéwáan wáa.

Int,Ø,+

10

Báa benem Máyel heshehothesha hishanawáan?

grief

11

Bóo dubedi ni eril medi onin bimanal obethedimehée.

situational depression (Int,Ø,+)

12

Bóo amedara na leden yina ranal.

frustration

In #12, did you have trouble with the syntax “[noun] ranal”? We usually add a case suffix onto the end of a noun so that noun fulfills that case function in our sentence. Alternatively, we can add the case suffix to ra– (NON) instead of a noun to explicitly state that “nothing” is what fulfills that case role in the sentence. A third option is to provide a noun but deny or reverse the case role for that noun. In this sentence, the syntax “[noun] ranal” reverses the Manner case role for “yina” (embarassment: Int,Ø,+) and then for “dedina” (frustration: Int,Ø,+), giving the meaning “in a manner opposite to [the emotion].”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

A father will give the appearance of anger (Ext,–,–) when his offspring dies of (due to) an illness, obviously.

14

My friend signed sadly (Ext,–,–) that the odd picture was obscure.

15

Are the farmers feeling depression (Ext,+,–) or only regret (Ext,–,–) because the plants are blighted in their fields?

16

Prithee allow the youth who is paying attention, internally, to frustration (Int,Ø,–) and depression (Int,Ø,–) to be still.

17

Will the family eat the meal regretfully (Ext,–,+)?

18

In the manner of which emotion does the baby lie down?

Did you have any trouble forming a word for “obscure” in #14? Consider that “obscure” means “unclear” or “indistinct” or “murky;” sounds like the opposite of “wedeth” (to be clear); try “rawedeth.”

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Answers

1

Who knows that the baker was angry (Ext,–,+) at the bread.

2

The student doesn’t show signs of frustration (Ext,–,–) to the teacher because of the many lexical gaps.

3

Is the dancer paying attention, internally, to grief (Ext,+,–) because of her (by chance) injury?

4

The scientist laughed embarassedly (Ext,–,–).

5

Did William threaten to weep at the traveler’s (no reason why) enemy because of sadness (Ext,+,–)?

6

Prithee ask Anna whether she cleaned your home out of frustration (Ext,+,+) or embarassment (Ext,+,+).

 

7

The weaver feels regret (Ext,+,–) at (because of) the ugliness of the cloth.

Bíi ril loláad odá yara modi odethuwáan wáa.

The weaver is embarassed (Ext,+,–) at the ugliness of the cloth.

8

Bethany is showing signs of grief (Ext,+,+) because the king pays no attention to the extreme need of his people.

Bíi ril dam Bétheni lobala beróo il ra huhid themehul withethu bethoth wa.

Bethany is showing signs of situational depression (Ext,+,+) because the king pays no attention to the extreme need of his people.

9

Anthony is paying attention, internally, to regret (Int,Ø,–) because of an old promise.

Bíi lohil Ánetheni zhina worabun wodibéwáan wáa.

Anthony is paying attention, internally, to regret (Int,Ø,+) because of an old promise.

10

Is Michael staying in the park because of sadness (Ext,–,+)?

Báa benem Máyel heshehothesha shanawáan?

Is Michael staying in the park because of grief (Ext,–,+)?

11

Prithee, honored one, try to learn whether the nurses spoke angrily (Int,Ø,–) to the neighbor.

Bóo dubedi ni eril medi onin lobinanal obethedimehée.

Prithee, honored one, try to learn whether the nurses spoke depressedly (Int,Ø,+) to the neighbor.

12

Prithee, beloved, dance with me as though you were not embarassed (Int,Ø,+).

Bóo amedara na leden dedina ranal.

Prithee, beloved, dance with me as though you were not frustrated (Int,Ø,+).

 

13

Bíi aril dam thulid bama úyahú shebasheb shem behidetha éeyawáan wi.

14

Bíi eril lishid lan letho hishamanal rawedeth wobú wodademehé wa.

15

Báa meloláad ábedá lobara e zhama neda úwáanú meratháa dala ábedun bezhethosha?

16

Bóo díwam ne lohil yáawith dedima i lobimaháa.

17

Báa aril yod onida anadal zhananal?

18

Báa rúu áwith bebáanal? Wihinal nedaba?

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