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Lesson 41
Translation 6


Vocabulary

áala

thanks; as a verb: to thank

delishe

to weep; to cry (not of babies)

dí–

Prefix (verb): allow to VERB; permit to VERB; let VERB {AB}

diídin

holiday

dimilin

ornament

dínon

to be free [dí (ALLOW) + non (allow)]

dóo

Phrase: “well…”

harathal

to be bad (of time) [hath (time) + rathal (bad)]

héedá

to pick up; to lift up

hulehul

Phrase: “for sure” (emphatic, strong affirmative) [–hul (extreme degree)]

lishenal

vividly [lish (lightning) + –nal (MANN)]

non

to allow; to permit; to let

oho

Phrase: “You’re welcome” (response to “áala”)

owe

garment

raláadá

non-perceiver [ra– (NON) + láad (perceive) + –á (DOER)] (very strong pejorative overtones; never used lightly)

rashi

to displease [ra– (NON) + shi (to please)]

rawima

ingratitude (with no external cause and no blame and no remedy) [ra– (NON) + wena (gratitude)]
More information in the lesson on Opposites of Declined Nouns

shod

room

shol

absence of pain

Shósho

Magic Granny, a character in stories

–th

Suffix (Type-of-Sentence Word): said in pain

wena

gratitude (more fully, gratitude for good reason(s))
More information in the lesson on First Declension Nouns

wu…

Phrase: such a…; what a…

zholh

noise [zho (sound) + –lh (PEJ)]

Láadan Text

Bóodan Máyel Bethu

2Bíide eríli meshóodehul with woho thenahalenal miwithesha bosha menedebenil diídineya wo. Mesháad ben nudim i núudim miwithesha o, i medibithimelan hin hinedim, i mehada shidinal. Melalom i mehalehale beyen. Meham mewoliri wodimilin menedebe; meliyen i melayun i melula ben. Mehel sháawith anath nedebe diídineda neda, i mehom ben bezheth hoshem benethadim. Hathal i háya hi; mehelahela with woho—rizh Máyel.

3Bíide loláad ra Máyel thenath wo. Merashi liri dimilinethu behideth. Rashe zholh méwithethu behideth. Di háawithizh behidedim, “Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i nédid behid bedim; nadelishe behizh hiwáan, i nádelishe hathobéeya héedá thul betha beth i she beth.

4 Bíide medibáa with hin hinedim wo, “Báath ril loláad ra Máyel thenath bebáawáan?” En with raho. Id di beye Shósho bidim Máyel bethu doól.

5 Bíide bithim Shósho Máyel beth wethesha nédeshubewáan wo, i nóosháad diwan; di bi, “Wil sha, Máyel. Báa tháa ne?”

6 Bíide di Máyel bidim wo, “Wil sha, Shósho. Bíi tháahil le wa.”

7 Bíide dibáa Shósho behidedim wo, “Báa di ne ‘tháahil’ bebáawáan? Éeya ne? Loláad ne heyith?”

8 “Ra, Shósho. Bíi thi le lameth wa. Loláad le sholeth, hulehul.”

9 “I báa thi ne anath i ranath?”

10 “Bíi re yide re yada le wa.”

11 “I báa thi ne betheth? Owa be wemaneya, i rahowahil wumaneya?”

12 “Em, Shósho. Bíi habelid le wodo womathesha wa. Meshe shod bethu hathemeneya woho.”

13 “I bud; báa thi ne bud? She be neth? Shi be neth?”

*!*

14 “Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le mewothal wohoweth menedebe wa.”

15 “I báa thi ne laneth, i den be neth úyahú them ne deneth?”

16 “Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le laneth menedebe wa, i meden ben leth themeya waha.”

17 “I báa nime den ne lan nethoth themeya?”

18 “Em, Shósho. Bíi bere medibóo neda ben, ébere den le beneth hithenanal themehelewáan.”

19 ”Báa thad sháad ne nudim e núudim úyahú nédehel ne hith?”

20 “Em, Shósho. Bíi sháad le dínonenal wahadim wa.”

21 “I báa thi ne haleth? Dóshóod be neth? Shub be thaleth witheda? Them nábedi ne beda?”

22 “Em, Shósho. Bíi hal le wa. Hi lethoth wothem wohalem. Mehathal mewohal wosháal woho rano mewoharathal wosháaleden nedebe neda. Izh báa dibáa ni daleth hin ledim bebáawan?”

23 Bíide di Shósho wo, “Dóo, bíidi dubedi le beyeth wa.”

24 “Báa néde lothel ni bebáath?”

25 “Bíidi thi ne dal woho wothaleháalish wowída wáa. Rathi ne dal raho. Bóodi di ne ledim lu: báadi tháahul ra ne bebáanal?”

26 Bíide láadom Máyel shadon dáanethu Shósho bithoth lishenal wo; di be, “Bíi eril lhele raláadám wa. Eril meban with menedebe binith menedebe lheledim, i loláad—i dam—lhele rawimath. Ril en lhele, doól, i loláad lhele wenaháalish, bishibenal.”

27 Bíide lámála Shósho Máyel beth onasha wo i di, “Bóoli zha ra na nayóoth ‘lhele’ lu; bíili ril na wothalehil woyáawithidem; aril náwí na wothal wosháawithem thomaya wa. Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i náasháad be.

28 Bíide dithedelan Máyel Shósho bidim wo, “Wil thena diídineya! I áalaháalish!”

29 Bíide di Shósho behidedim wo, “Oho,” úyahú obée násháad bi, i biyóodim, “Bíilan aril ba wu woshi wowith wa.”

30 Bíide sháalede hi aril wo, úyahú woho di beye behidedim, “Wil thena diídineya,” di behid wenanal hadihad, “Wil thenaháalish diídineya i sháaleya woho!”

My English Translation with Morpheme-by-Morpheme Analysis

Bóodan Máyel Bethu

Bóodan

Rescue

Máyel

Michael

Bethu

X1 + PARTV

The Rescue of Michael


2Bíide eríli ham diídin miwithesha bosha menedebenil wáa. Meshóod with woho thenanal. Mesháad ben nudim i núudim miwithesha o, i medilan, i mehada. Melalom i mehalehale beyen. Meham mewoliri wodimilin menedebe; meliyen i melayun i melula ben. Mehel with anath menedebe diídineda neda. Hathal i háya hi; mehelahela with woho—rizh Máyel.

2

Bíide

DECL + NARR

eríli

FARPAST

meshóodehul

PL + BeBusy + DEGextreme

with

Person

woho

#All

thenahalenal

JoyGood + DEGunusual + MANN

miwithesha

Town + PLC

bosha

Mountain + PLC

menedebenil

#>5 + Inside = Among>5

diídineya

Holiday + TIME

wo.

MADEUP

Mesháad

PL + ComeGo

ben

X>5

nudim

Here + GOAL

i

And

núudim

There + GOAL

miwithesha

Town + PLC

o,

Around

i

And

medibithimelan

PL + Speak + Meet = Greet + CELEB

hin

Demo>5

hinedim,

Demo>5 + GOAL

i

And

mehada

PL + Laugh

shidinal.

BeTogether + MANN

Melalom

PL + Sing

i

And

mehalehale

PL + Music

beyen.

Indef>5

Each Other>5 + GOAL

Meham

PL + BePresent

mewoliri

PL + REL + BeColored

wodimilin

REL + Ornament

menedebe;

#>5

meliyen

PL + BeGreen

i

And

melayun

PL + BeOrange

i

And

melula

PL + BePurple

ben.

X>5

Mehel

PL + Make

sháawith

SENIOR + Person = Senior

anath

Food + OBJ

nedebe

#2-5

diídineda

Holiday + BENEF

neda,

Only

i

And

mehom

PL + Teach

ben

X>5

bezheth

X2-5 + OBJ

hoshem

GRAND + Offspring = Grandchild

benethadim.

X>5 + POSSbirth + GOAL

Hathal

Good(time)

i

And

háya

BeBeautifulTime

hi;

Demo1

mehelahela

PL + Celebration

with

Person

woho

#All

—rizh

Except

Máyel.

Michael

2Once upon a time long ago, everyone was extremely and joyfully busy in the town among the many mountains at holiday time. They came and went hither and thither around the town, and greeted each other in celebration and laughed together. Many sang and made music. There were many colorful ornaments; they were green and orange and purple. The old people made a few foods only for the holiday, and they taught them to their grandchildren. This was a good and beautiful time; everyone celebrated—except Michael.


3Bíide loláad ra Máyel thenath wo. Merashi liri dimilinethu behideth. Rashe zholh méwithethu behideth. Di háawithizh behidedim, “Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i nédid behid bedim; nadelishe behizh hiwáan, i nádelishe hathobéeya héedá thul betha beth i she beth.

3

Bíide

DECL + NARR

loláad

PerceiveInt

ra

NEG

Máyel

Michael

thenath

JoyGood + OBJ

wo.

MADEUP

Merashi

PL + NON + ToPlease = Displease

liri

BeColored

dimilinethu

Ornament + PARTV

behideth.

X1 + Male = He + OBJ

Rashe

NON + Comfort = Torment

zholh

Sound + PEJ = Noise

méwithethu.

COLLV + Person = Crowd + PARTV

behideth.

He + OBJ

Di

Speak

háawithizh

Child + FEM = LittleGirl

behidedim,

He + GOAL

“Bíilan

DECL + CELEB

wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

i

And

nédid

BACK + Speak = Answer + ANGER

behid

He

bedim;

X1 + GOAL

nadelishe

BEGIN + Weep

be

X1

hiwáan.

Demo1 + COZ

i

And

nádelishe

CONT + Weep

hathobéeya

Until

héedá

PickUp

thul

Parent

betha

X1 + POSSbirth

beth

X1 + OBJ

i

And

she

Comfort

beth.

X1 + OBJ

3Michael wasn’t joyful. The colors of the ornaments displeased him. The noise of the crowd tormented him. A child said to him in celebration, “Happy holiday!” and he answered her angrily; she began to cry because of this and continued to cry until her parent picked her up and comforted her.


4Bíide medibáa with hin hinedim wo, “Báath ril loláad ra Máyel thenath bebáawáan?” En with raho. Id di beye Shósho bidim Máyel bethu doól.

4

Bíide

DECL + NARR

medibáa

PL + Question

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

hin

Demo>5

hinedim

Demo>5 + GOAL

wo,

MADEUP

“Báath

Q + PAIN

EachOther>5 + GOAL

ril

PRES

loláad

PerceiveInt

ra

NEG

Máyel

Michael

thenath

JoyGood + OBJ

bebáawáan?”

Qprn1 + COZ

En

Understand

with

Person

raho.

#0

Id

AndThen

di

Speak

beye

Indef1

Shósho

MagicGranny

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

Máyel

Michael

bethu

X1 + PARTV

doól.

AtLast

4Many people asked each other, pained, “Why does Michael feel no joy?” Not one person understood. And then, at last, someone spoke to Magic Granny about Michael.


5Bíide bithim Shósho Máyel beth wethesha nédeshubewáan wo, i nóosháad diwan; di bi, “Wil sha, Máyel. Báa tháa ne?”

5

Bíide

DECL + NARR

bithim

Meet

Shósho

MagicGranny

Máyel

Michael

beth

X1 + OBJ

wethesha

Path + PLC

nédeshubewáan

Intention + COZ

wo,

MADEUP

i

And

nóosháad

PAUSE + ComeGo

diwan;

Speak + PURP

di

Speak

bi,

XHon1

“Wil

OPTV

sha,

Harmony

Máyel.

Michael

Báa

Q

tháa

Thrive

ne?”

You1

5Magic Granny met Michael, per intention, in the street and paused to talk; she said, “Hello, Michael. How are you?”


6Bíide di Máyel bidim wo, “Wil sha, Shósho. Bíi tháahil le wa.”

6

Bíide

DECL + NARR

di

Speak

Máyel

Michael

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

wo,

MADEUP

“Wil

OPTV

sha,

Harmony

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

tháahil

Thrive + DEGminor

le

I

wa.”

MYPERC

6Michael answered her, “Hello, Magic Granny. I’m… just okay.”


7Bíide dibáa Shósho behidedim wo, “Báa di ne ‘tháahil’ bebáawáan? Éeya ne? Loláad ne heyith?”

7

Bíide

DECL + NARR

dibáa

Question

Shósho

MagicGranny

behidedim

He + GOAL

wo,

MADEUP

“Báa

Q

di

Speak

ne

You1

‘tháahil’

Thrive + DEGminor

bebáawáan?

Qprn1 + COZ

Éeya

Illness

ne?

You1

Loláad

PerceiveInt

ne

You1

heyith?”

Pain + OBJ

7Magic Granny asked him, “Why do you say ‘okay’? Are you ill? Are you in pain?”


8“Ra, Shósho. Bíi thi le lameth wa, i loláad le sholeth, hulehul.”

8

“Ra,

Neg

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

lameth

Health + OBJ

wa,

MYPERC

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

le

I

sholeth

AbsenceOfPain + OBJ

hulehul.”

ForSure

8“No, Magic Granny. I have my health, and I’m free of pain, for-sure.”


9“I báa thi ne anath i ranath?”

9

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

anath

Food + OBJ

i

And

ranath?”

Drink + OBJ

9“And do you have food and drink?”


10“Bíi re yide re yada le wa.”

10

Bíi

DECL

re

Neither…

yide

BeHungry

re

…Nor

yada

BeThirsty

le

I

wa.”

MYPERC

10“I neither hunger nor thirst.”


11“I báa thi ne betheth? Owa be wemaneya, i rahowahil wumaneya?”

11

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

betheth?

Home + OBJ

Owa

BeWarm

be

X1

wemaneya,

Winter + TIME

i

And

rahowahil

BeCold + DEGminor

wumaneya?”

Summer + TIME

11“And do you have a home? Is it warm in winter and cool in summer?”


12“Em, Shósho. Bíi habelid le wodo womathesha wa. Meshe shod bethu hathemeneya woho.”

12

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

habelid

Dwell

le

I

wodo

REL + BeStrong

womathesha

REL + Building + PLC

wa.

MYPERC

Meshe

PL + Comfort

shod

Room

bethu

X1 + PARTV

hathemeneya

Season + TIME

woho.”

#All

12“Yes, Magic Granny. I dwell in a strong building. Its rooms are comfortable in all seasons.”


13“I bud; báa thi ne bud? She be neth? Shi be neth?”

13

“I

And

bud;

Clothing

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

bud?

Clothing

She

Comfort

be

X1

neth?

You1 + OBJ

Shi

ToPlease

be

X1

neth?”

You1 + OBJ

13“And clothes; do you have clothes? Do they comfort you? Do they please you?”


14“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le wothal wohoweth menedebe wa.”

14

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

wothal

REL + BeGood

wohoweth

REL + Garment + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

wa.”

MYPERC

14“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many good garments.”


15“I báa thi ne laneth, i den be neth úyahú them ne deneth?”

15

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

laneth,

Friend + OBJ

i

And

den

Help

be

X1

neth

You1 + OBJ

úyahú

CONJtime

them

Need

ne

You1

deneth?”

Help + OBJ

15“And do you have a friend, and do they help you when you need help”?


16“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le laneth menedebe wa, i meden ben leth themeya waha.”

16

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

laneth

Friend + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

wa,

MYPERC

i

And

meden

PL + Help

ben

X>5

leth

I + OBJ

themeya

Need + TIME

waha.”

#Any

16“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many friends, and they help me in any time of need.”


17“I báa nime den ne lan nethoth themeya?”

17

“I

And

báa

Q

nime

BeWilling

den

Help

ne

You1

lan

Friend

nethoth

You1 + POSS + OBJ

themeya”?

Need + TIME

17“And are you willing to help your friends in time of need?”


18“Em, Shósho. Bíi bere medibóo neda ben, ébere den le beneth hithenanal themehelewáan.”

18

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

bere

If

medibóo

PL + Request

neda

Only

ben,

X>5

ébere

Then

den

Help

le

I

beneth

X>5 + OBJ

hithenanal

HappinessGood + MANN

themehelewáan.”

Need + DEGtrivial + COZ

18“Yes, Magic Granny. If they only ask, then I happily help them with the slightest need.”


19”Báa thad sháad ne nudim e núudim úyahú nédehel ne hith?”

19

“Báa

Q

thad

BeAble

sháad

ComeGo

ne

You1

nudim

Here + GOAL

e

or

núudim

There + GOAL

úyahú

CONJtime

nédehel

Want + DEGtrivial

ne

You1

hith?”

Demo1 + OBJ

19“Can you go hither or thither when you have a whim to?”


20“Em, Shósho. Bíi sháad le dínonenal wahadim wa.”

20

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

sháad

ComeGo

le

I

dínonenal

ALLOW + Allow = BeFree + MANN

wahadim

#Any + GOAL

wa.

MYPERC

20“Yes, Magic Granny. I freely come and go anywhither ”


21“I báa thi ne haleth? Dóshóod be neth? Shub be thaleth witheda? Them nábedi ne beda?”

21

I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

haleth?

Work + OBJ

Dóshóod

CAUSEto + BeBusy

be

X1

neth?

You1 + OBJ

Shub

Do

be

X1

thaleth

BeGood + OBJ

witheda?

Person + BENEF

Them

Need

nábedi

CONT + Learn

ne

You1

beda?”

X1 + BENEF

21“And do you have work? Does it keep you busy? Does it do good for people? Do you need to keep learning for it?”


22“Em, Shósho. Bíi hal le wa. Hi letho wothem wohalem. Mehathal mewohal wosháal woho rano mewoharathal wosháaleden nedebe neda. Izh báa dibáa ni daleth hin ledim bebáawan?”

22

“Em,

Yes

Shósho

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

hal

Work

le

I

wa.

MYPERC

Hi

Demo1

letho

I + POSS

wothem

REL + Need

wohalem.

REL + Work + IDENT

Mine

Mehathal

PL + BeGoodTime

mewohal

PL + REL + Work

wosháal

REL + Day

woho

#All

rano

Almost

mewoharathal

PL + REL + BeBadTime

wosháaleden

REL + Day + ASSOC

nedebe

#2-5

neda.

Only

Izh

But

báa

Q

dibáa

Question

ni

YouHon1

daleth

Thing + OBJ

hin

Demo>5

ledim

I + GOAL

bebáawan?”

Qprn1 + PURP

22“Yes, Magic Granny. I work. Mine is necessary work. Almost all work-days are good with only a few bad days. But to what end do honored-you ask me these things?”


23Bíide di Shósho wo, “Dóo, bíidi dubedi le beyeth wa.”

23

Bíide

DECL + NARR

di

Speak

Shósho

MagicGranny

wo,

MADEUP

“Dóo

Well…

bíidi

DECL + DIDACT

dubedi

TRY + Learn

le

I

beyeth

Indef1 + OBJ

wa.”

MYPERC

23Magic Granny said, didactically, “Well, I am trying to learn something.”


24“Báa néde lothel ni bebáath?”

24

“Báa

Q

néde

Want

lothel

Know

ni

YouHon1

bebáath?”

Qprn1 + OBJ

24“What do honored-you want to know?”


25“Bíidi thi ne dal woho wothaleháalish wowída wáa. Rathi ne dal raho. Bóodi di ne ledim lu: báadi tháahul ra ne bebáanal?”

25

“Bíidi

DECL + DIDACT

thi

Have

ne

You1

dal

Thing

woho

#All

wothaleháalish

REL + BeGood + DEGextraord

wowída

REL + Life + BENEF

wáa.

TRUSTED

Rathi

NON + Have = Lack

ne

You1

dal

Thing

raho.

#0

Bóodi

REQ + DIDACT

di

Say

ne

You1

ledim

I + GOAL

lu:

Please

báadi

Q + DIDACT

tháahul

Thrive + DEGextreme

ra

NEG

ne

You1

bebáanal?”

Qprn1 + MANN

25“You have everything for an excellent life. You lack abolutely nothing. Tell me, please: in what way are you not doing very well indeed?


26Bíide láadom Máyel shadon dáanethu Shósho bithoth lishenal wo; di be, “Bíi eril lhele raláadám wa. Eril meban with menedebe binith menedebe lheledim, i loláad—i dam—lhele rawimath. Ril en lhele, doól, i loláad lhele wenaháalish, bishibenal.”

26

“Bíide

DECL + NARR

láadom

Recognize

Máyel,

Michael

shadon

Truth

dáanethu

Word + PARTV

Shósho

MagicGranny

bithoth

XHon1 + POSS + OBJ

lishenal,

Lightning + MANN = Vividly

wo;

MADEUP

di

Speak

be,

X1

“Bíi

DECL

eril

PAST

lhele

IDesp

raláadám

NON + Perceive + DOER + IDENT

wa.

MYPERC

Eril

PAST

meban

PL + Give

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

binith

Gift + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

lheledim,

IDesp + GOAL

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

—i

And

dam—

Manifest

lhele

IDesp

rawimath.

Ingratitude(Int,Ø,–)

Ril

PRES

en

Understand

lhele,

IDesp

doól,

AtLast

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

lhele

IDesp

wenaháalish,

GratitudeGood + DEGextraord

bishibenal.”

BeSudden + MANN

26Michael vividly recognized the truth of Magic Granny’s words; he said, “I have been deaf, blind, and wrong-headed. Many people have given me many gifts, and I was ungrateful. Now I understand, finally, and suddenly I’m so very grateful.”


27Bíide lámála Shósho Máyel beth onasha wo i di, “Bóoli zha ra na nayóoth ‘lhele’ lu; bíili ril na wothalehil woyáawithidem; aril náwí na wothal wosháawithem thomaya wa. Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i náasháad be.

27

Bíide

DECL + NARR

lámála

Caress

Shósho

MagicGranny

Máyel

Michael

beth

X1 + OBJ

onasha

Face + PLC

wo

MADEUP

i

And

di

Speak

“Bóoli

REQ + LOVE

zha

Name

ra

NEG

na

YouLove1

nayóoth

YouLove1 + REFLX + OBJ

‘lhele’

IDesp

lu;

Please

bíili

DECL + LOVE

ril

PRES

na

YouLove1

wothalehil

REL + BeGood + DEGminor

woyáawithidem;

REL + TEEN + Man + IDENT

aril

FUT

náwí

Grow

na

YouLove1

wothal

REL + BeGood

wosháawithem

REL + Adult + Person + IDENT

thomaya

Near + TIME = SoonRecent

wa.

MYPERC

Bíilan

DECL + CELEB

wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

i

And

náasháad

RESUME + ComeGo

bi.

XHon1

27Magic Granny caressed Michael’s face and said, lovingly, “Please do not name yourself ‘despised;’ you are a decent youth; you will soon grow into a good adult. Happy holiday!” and resumed her progress.


28Bíide dithedelan Máyel Shósho bidim wo, “Wil thena diídineya! I áalaháalish!”

28

Bíide

DECL + NARR

dithedelan

Speak + BeFar = Call + CELEB

Máyel

Michael

Shósho

MagicGranny

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

wo,

MADEUP

“Wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya!

Holiday + TIME

I

And

áalaháalish!”

Thanks + DEGextraord

28Michael called, in celebration, to Magic Granny, “Happy holiday! And thank you so much!”


29Bíide di Shósho behidedim wo, “Oho,” úyahú obée násháad bi, i biyóodim, “Bíilan aril ba wu woshi wowith wa.”

29

Bíide

DECL + NARR

di

Speak

Shósho

MagicGranny

behidedim

He + GOAL

wo,

MADEUP

“Oho,”

You’reWelcome

úyahú

CONJtime

obée

During

While

násháad

CONT + ComeGo

bi,

XHon1

i

And

biyóodim,

XHon1 + REFLX + GOAL

“Bíilan

DECL + CELEB

aril

FUT

ba

XLove1

wu

SuchA

woshi

REL + ToPlease

wowith

REL + Person

wa.”

MYPERC

29Magic Granny said to him, “You’re welcome,” while continuing on her way and, to herself, “Beloved-he will be such a pleasant person.”


30Bíide sháalede hi aril wo, úyahú woho di beye behidedim, “Wil thena diídineya,” di behid wenanal hadihad, “Wil thenaháalish diídineya i sháaleya woho!”

30

Bíide

DECL + NARR

sháalede

Day + SRC

hi

Demo1

aril

FUT

wo,

MADEUP

úyahú

CONJtime

woho

#All

di

Speak

beye

Indef1

behidedim,

He + GOAL

Whenever

“Wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

di

Speak

behid

He

wenanal,

GratitudeGood + MANN

hadihad,

Always

“Wil

OPTV

thenaháalish

JoyGood + DEGextraord

diídineya

Holiday + TIME

i

And

sháaleya

Day + TIME

woho!”

#All

30From that day forward, whenever someone said to him, “Happy holiday”, he always gratefully said, “Greatest joy at the holiday and every day!”

Free Translation

The Rescue of Michael

2Once upon a time long ago, everyone was extremely and joyfully busy in the town among the many mountains at holiday time. They came and went hither and thither around the town, and greeted each other in celebration and laughed together. Many sang and made music. There were many colorful ornaments; they were green and orange and purple. The old people made a few foods only for the holiday, and they taught them to their grandchildren. This was a good and beautiful time; everyone celebrated—except Michael.

3Michael wasn’t joyful. The colors of the ornaments displeased him. The noise of the crowd tormented him. A child said to him in celebration, “Happy holiday!” and he answered her angrily; she began to cry because of this and continued to cry until her parent picked her up and comforted her.

4Many people asked each other, pained, “Why does Michael feel no joy?” Not one person understood. And then, at last, someone spoke to Magic Granny about Michael.

5Magic Granny met Michael, per intention, in the street and paused to talk; she said, “Hello, Michael. How are you?”

6Michael answered her, “Hello, Magic Granny. I’m… just okay.”

7Magic Granny asked him, “Why do you say ‘just okay’? Are you ill? Are you in pain?”

8“No, Magic Granny. I have my health, and I’m free of pain, for-sure.”

9“And do you have food and drink?”

10“I neither hunger nor thirst.”

11“And do you have a home? Is it warm in winter and cool in summer?”

12“Yes, Magic Granny. I dwell in a strong building. Its rooms are comfortable in all seasons.”

13“And clothes; do you have clothes? Do they comfort you? Do they please you?”

14“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many good garments.”

15“And do you have a friend, and do they help you when you need help”?

16“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many friends, and they help me in any time of need.”

17“And are you willing to help your friends in time of need?”

18“Yes, Magic Granny. If they only ask, then I happily help them with the slightest need.”

19“Can you go hither or thither when you have a whim to?”

20“Yes, Magic Granny. I freely come and go anywhither.”

21“And do you have work? Does it keep you busy? Does it do good for people? Do you need to keep learning for it?”

22“Yes, Magic Granny. I work. Mine is necessary work. Almost all work-days are good with only a few bad days. But to what end do honored-you ask me these things?”

23Magic Granny said, didactically, “Well, I am trying to learn something.”

24“What do honored-you want to know?”

25“You have everything for an excellent life. You lack absolutely nothing. Please, tell me: in what way are you not doing very well indeed?

26Michael vividly understood the truth of Magic Granny’s words; he said, “I have been deaf, blind, and wrong-headed. Many people have given me many gifts, and I was ungrateful. Now I understand, finally, and suddenly I’m so very grateful.”

27Magic Granny caressed Michael’s face and said, lovingly, “Please do not name yourself ‘despised;’ you are a decent youth; you will soon grow into a good adult. Happy holiday!” and resumed her progress.

28Michael called, in celebration, to Magic Granny, “Happy holiday! And thank you so much!”

29Magic Granny said to him, “You’re welcome,” while continuing on her way and, to herself, “Beloved-he will be such a pleasant person.”

30From that day forward, whenever someone said to him, “Happy holiday”, he always gratefully said, “Greatest joy at the holiday and every day!”

Comments

At various points in this story, we’ve seen “with raho” (no person) or “dal raho” (no thing) when we could more easily have said “rawith” (nobody) or “radal” (nothing). The combined forms carry the same denotation (there is no person/thing that fulfills the function), but the connotations of the structure using the quantifier “raho” (zero) are more emphatic—just as English sequences including the phrases “zero people” or “zero things” would be much more emphatic than ones that made use only of “no-one” or “nothing.” An apt English translation for the “raho” sequences might be “absolutely no-one” or “absolutely nothing.”

In this story we’re introduced to the word “shol” (absence of pain). It is very interesting to note that, among languages, what may be a negative concept (deriving only from its opposition to a positive) in one language may very well be a positive concept in some other language. “Shol” is a clear example of such a word: in Láadan, “shol” is a positive statement; it requires nothing to negate; in English, the nearest we can come to this concept is “the absence of pain”.

At one point Magic Granny asks Michael whether he has a friend. The usual formation of this question in English would be “Do you have (any) friends?” Láadan is not so concerned with number, as evidenced by the lack of plural forms for nouns. In the situation Magic Granny finds herself in—asking about the existence of something and then asking particulars about that thing, never having learned how many of the thing there might be—the singular verb (and pronoun, if any) is appropriate. The answerer will correct the number if appropriate, and then the questioner can proceed with that new information.

We see internal reference for the first time in this story, in the phrase “…úyahú nédehel ne hith…” (…when you ever-so-slightly-want to…). The word “hi” in this construction refers to the previous clause (about coming/going hither and thither). It’s useful to note that, while this example is instructive of how to form this type of structure, Láadan’s case structures would make it much more succinct to render this meaning “nédeheleya” (at the time of merest wanting).

Magic Granny opines that Michael will grow (náwí) from a decent youth to a good adult. The case assignment here is the same as that for “nahin” (to become). The “before” version is rendered in the Subject case, and the “after” version is in the Identifier case. The reasons for these case assignments will be made clear in a future lesson.

We’ve seen the word “thoma” (to be near) before. However, it is used here in what may be an unexpected way: in a sentence set in the past, “thomaya” (be near + TIME) would mean “recently;” however, in one set, as this one is, in the future, “soon” is the proper translation.

In paragraphs #29 and #30, we see the conjunction “úyahú” (CONJtime) modified by postpositions. In English we have many words to introduce adverbial phrases of time (“when,” “whenever,” “before,” “during,” “after,” “while,” and so on). In Láadan, we have postpositions that work very well in modifying a time case element, but we haven’t seen up ‘til now how they might modify a clause introduced by the conjunction “úyahú.” The postposition is placed directly after the conjunction and modifies the generic “when” according to its meaning.

In paragraphs #12, #22, and #29, we see transitive verbs (verbs that usually take an Object) “she” (to comfort), “them” (to need), and “shi” (to please) used without Objects. In the latter two of these cases, the verbs are half of a Relativized verb-noun pair that brings a stative (what would, in English, be an adjectival) sense. This is routine; we’ve seen this many times. However, in #12, the verb “she” (to comfort) is used as the main verb in its clause to describe the rooms Michael inhabits—without stating whom or what is comforted. This use is perfectly acceptable in Láadan; it’s simply the reverse of using a stative verb with an Object to imply an active verb’s meaning. However, for the purposes of translating into English, we’d have to find an appropriate adjective to use. The English adjectival ending –able is usually helpful in forming such an adjective: “…meshe shol…” (…the rooms are comfortable…).

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