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Lesson 41
Translation 6


Vocabulary

bima

anger (more fully, anger with no external cause, no blame, and no remedy)
More information in the lesson on Second Declension Nouns

dimilin

ornament

harathal

to be bad (of time) [hath (time) + rathal (bad)]

lishenal

vividly [lish (lightning) + –nal (MANN)]

raláadá

non-perceiver [ra– (NON) + láad (perceive) + –á (DOER)] (very strong pejorative overtones; never used lightly)

rathi

to lack (ra– (NON) + thi (to have)]

rawima

ingratitude (with no external cause and no blame and no remedy) [ra– (NON) + wena (gratitude)]
More information in the lesson on Opposites of Declined Nouns

re…re

neither…nor [ra– (NON) + e…e (either…or)]

shol

absence of pain

–th

Suffix (Type-of-Sentence Word): said in pain

wena

gratitude (more fully, gratitude for good reason(s))
More information in the lesson on First Declension Nouns

zholh

noise [zho (sound) + –lh (PEJ)]

Text

Bóodan Máyel Bethu

2Bíide eríli ham diídin miwithesha bosha menedebenil wáa. Meshóod with woho thenanal. Mesháad ben nudim i núudim miwithesha o, i medilan, i mehada. Melalom i mehalehale beyen. Meham mewoliri wodimilin menedebe; meliyen i melayun i melula ben. Mehel with anath menedebe diídineda neda. Hathal i háya hi; mehelahela with woho—rizh Máyel.

3Bíide loláad ra Máyel thenath wáa. Ham zholh méwithethu. Meshi ra liri dimilinethu behideth. Di háawithizh behidedim, “Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i nédi behid bimanal bedim; nadelishe be hiwáan.

4Bíide medibáa with menedebe hin hinedim wáa, “Báath ril loláad ra Máyel thenath bebáawáan?” En with raho. Id di beye Shósho bidim Máyel bethu.

5Bíide bithim Shósho Máyel beth wethesha nédeshubewáan wáa, i nóosháad diwan; di bi, “Wil sha, Máyel. Báa tháa ne?”

6Bíide di Máyel bidim wáa, “Wil sha, Shósho. Bíi tháahil le wa.”

7Bíide dibáa Shósho behidedim wáa, “Báa di ne ‘tháahil’ bebáawáan? Éeya ne? Loláad ne heyith?”

8“Ra, Shósho. Bíi thi le lameth wa, i loláad le sholeth, hulehul.”

9“I báa thi ne anath i ranath?”

10“Bíi re yide re yada le wa.”

11“I báa thi ne betheth? Owa be wemaneya, i rahowahil wumaneya?”

12“Em, Shósho. Bíi habelid le wodo womathesha wa.”

13“I bud; báa thi ne bud? She be neth? Shi be neth?”

14“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le wothal wobudeth wa.”

15“I báa thi ne laneth, i den be neth úyahú them ne deneth?”

16“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le laneth menedebe wa, i meden ben leth themeya waha.”

17“I báa nime den ne lan nethoth themeya?”

18“Em, Shósho. Bíi bere medibóo neda ben, ébere den le beneth thenanal themehelewáan.”

19”Báa thad sháad ne nudim e núudim úyahú nédehel ne hith?”

20“Em, Shósho. Bíi sháad le dozhenal wahadim wa.”

21“I báa thi ne haleth? Dóshóod be neth? Shub be thaleth witheda? Them nábedi ne beda?”

22“Em, Shósho. Bíi hal le wa. Be wothem wohalem. Mehathal mewohal wosháal woho rano mewoharathal wosháaleden nedebe neda. Izh báa dibáa ni daleth hin ledim bebáawan?”

23Bíide di Shósho wáa, “Bíidi dubedi le beyeth wa.”

24“Báa néde lothel ni bebáath?”

25“Bíidi thi ne dal woho wothaleháalish wowída wáa. Rathi ne dal raho. Bóodi di ne ledim lu: báadi tháahul ra ne bebáanal?”

26Bíide láadom Máyel, bishibenal i lishenal, shadon dáanethu Shósho betho wáa; di be, “Bíi eril lhele raláadám wa. Eril meban with menedebe binith menedebe lheledim, i loláad—i dam—lhele rawimath. Ril en lhele, doól, i loláad lhele wenaháalish, bishibenal.”

27Bíide lámála Shósho Máyel beth i di wáa, “Bóoli zha ra na nayóoth ‘lhele’ lu; bíili ril na wothalehil woyáawithidem; aril náwí na wothal wosháawithedim thomaya wa. Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i náasháad bi.

28Bíide dithedelan Máyel Shósho bidim wáa, “Wil thena diídineya! I áalaháalish!”

29Bíide sháalede hi aril wáa, úyahú di beye behidedim, “Wil thena diídineya,” di behid hadihad, wenanal, “Wil thenaháalish diídineya!”

My English Translation with Morpheme-by-Morpheme Analysis

Bóodan Máyel Bethu

Bóodan

Rescue

Máyel

Michael

Bethu

X1 + PARTV

The Rescue of Michael


2Bíide eríli ham diídin miwithesha bosha menedebenil wáa. Meshóod with woho thenanal. Mesháad ben nudim i núudim miwithesha o, i medilan, i mehada. Melalom i mehalehale beyen. Meham mewoliri wodimilin menedebe; meliyen i melayun i melula ben. Mehel with anath menedebe diídineda neda. Hathal i háya hi; mehelahela with woho—rizh Máyel.

2

Bíide

DECL + NARR

eríli

FARPAST

ham

BePresent

diídin

Holiday

miwithesha

Town + PLC

bosha

Mountain + PLC

menedebenil

#>5 + Inside = Among>5

wáa.

TRUSTED

Meshóod

PL + BeBusy

with

Person

woho

#All

thenanal.

JoyGood + MANN

Mesháad

PL + ComeGo

ben

X>5

nudim

Here + GOAL

i

And

núudim

There + GOAL

miwithesha

Town + PLC

o,

Around

i

And

medilan

PL + Speak + CELEB

i

And

mehada.

PL + Laugh

Melalom

PL + Sing

i

And

mehalehale

PL + Music

beyen.

Indef>5

Meham

PL + BePresent

mewoliri

PL + REL + BeColored

wodimilin

REL + Ornament

menedebe;

#>5

meliyen

PL + BeGreen

i

And

melayun

PL + BeOrange

i

And

melula

PL + BePurple

ben.

X>5

Mehel

PL + Make

with

Person

anath

Food + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

diídineda

Holiday + BENEF

neda.

Only

Hathal

Good(time)

i

And

háya

BeBeautifulTime

hi;

Demo1

mehelahela

PL + Celebration

with

Person

woho

#All

—rizh

Except

Máyel.

Michael

2Long ago there was a holiday in the town among the mountains. Everyone was joyfully busy. They came and went hither and thither around the town, and spoke-in-celebration and laughed. Many ones sang and made music. There were many colorful ornaments; they were green and orange and purple. The people made many foods only for the holiday. This was a good and beautiful time; everyone celebrated—except Michael.


3Bíide loláad ra Máyel thenath wáa. Ham zholh méwithethu. Meshi ra liri dimilinethu behideth. Di háawithizh behidedim, “Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i nédi behid bedim bimanal; nadelishe be hiwáan.

3

Bíide

DECL + NARR

loláad

PerceiveInt

ra

NEG

Máyel

Michael

thenath

JoyGood + OBJ

wáa.

TRUSTED

Ham

BePresent

zholh

Sound + PEJ = Noise

méwithethu.

COLLV + Person = Crowd + PARTV

Meshi

PL + ToPlease

ra

NEG

liri

BeColored

dimilinethu

Ornament + PARTV

behideth.

X1 + Male = He + OBJ

Di

Speak

háawith

Child

behidedim,

He + GOAL

“Bíilan

DECL + CELEB

wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

i

And

nédi

BACK + Speak = Answer

behid

He

bimanal

Anger(Int,Ø,–) + MANN

bedim;

X1 + GOAL

nadelishe

BEGIN + Weep

be

X1

hiwáan.

Demo1 + COZ

3Michael wasn’t joyful. There was the noise of the crowd. The colors of the ornaments didn’t please him. A child said to him in celebration, “Happy holiday!” and he answered her angrily (for no reason); she began to cry because of this.


4Bíide medibáa with menedebe hin hinedim wáa, “Báath ril loláad ra Máyel thenath bebáawáan?” En with raho. Id di beye Shósho bidim Máyel bethu.

4

Bíide

DECL + NARR

medibáa

PL + Question

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

hin

Demo>5

hinedim

Demo>5 + GOAL

wáa,

TRUSTED

EachOther>5 + GOAL

“Báath

Q + PAIN

ril

PRES

loláad

PerceiveInt

ra

NEG

Máyel

Michael

thenath

JoyGood + OBJ

bebáawáan?”

Qprn1 + COZ

En

Understand

with

Person

raho.

#0

Id

AndThen

di

Speak

beye

Indef1

Shósho

MagicGranny

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

Máyel

Michael

bethu.

X1 + PARTV

4Many people asked each other, pained, “Why does Michael feel no joy?” Not one person understood. And then someone spoke to Magic Granny about Michael.


5Bíide bithim Shósho Máyel beth wethesha nédeshubewáan wáa, i nóosháad diwan; di bi, “Wil sha, Máyel. Báa tháa ne?”

5

Bíide

DECL + NARR

bithim

Meet

Shósho

MagicGranny

Máyel

Michael

beth

X1 + OBJ

wethesha

Path + PLC

nédeshubewáan

Intention + COZ

wáa,

TRUSTED

i

And

nóosháad

PAUSE + ComeGo

diwan;

Speak + PURP

di

Speak

bi,

XHon1

“Wil

OPTV

sha,

Harmony

Máyel.

Michael

Báa

Q

tháa

Thrive

ne?”

You1

5Magic Granny met Michael, per intention, in the street and paused to talk; she said, “Hello, Michael. How are you?”


6Bíide di Máyel bidim wáa, “Wil sha, Shósho. Bíi tháahil le wa.”

6

Bíide

DECL + NARR

di

Speak

Máyel

Michael

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

wáa,

TRUSTED

“Wil

OPTV

sha,

Harmony

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

tháahil

Thrive + DEGminor

le

I

wa.”

MYPERC

6Michael answered her, “Hello, Magic Granny. I’m… okay.”


7Bíide dibáa Shósho behidedim wáa, “Báa di ne ‘tháahil’ bebáawáan? Éeya ne? Loláad ne heyith?”

7

Bíide

DECL + NARR

dibáa

Question

Shósho

MagicGranny

behidedim

He + GOAL

wáa,

TRUSTED

“Báa

Q

di

Speak

ne

You1

‘tháahil’

Thrive + DEGminor

bebáawáan?

Qprn1 + COZ

Éeya

BeSick

ne?

You1

Loláad

PerceiveInt

ne

You1

heyith?”

Pain + OBJ

7Magic Granny asked him, “Why do you say ‘okay’? Are you ill? Are you in pain?”


8“Ra, Shósho. Bíi thi le lameth wa, i loláad le sholeth, hulehul.”

8

“Ra,

Neg

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

lameth

Health + OBJ

wa,

MYPERC

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

le

I

sholeth

AbsenceOfPain + OBJ

hulehul.”

ForSure

8“No, Magic Granny. I have my health, and I’m free of pain, for-sure.”


9“I báa thi ne anath i ranath?”

9

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

anath

Food + OBJ

i

And

ranath?”

Drink + OBJ

9“And do you have food and drink?”


10“Bíi re yide re yada le wa.”

10

Bíi

DECL

re

Neither…

yide

BeHungry

re

…Nor

rada

BeThirsty

le

I

wa.”

MYPERC

10“I neither hunger nor thirst.”


11“I báa thi ne betheth? Owa be wemaneya, i rahowahil wumaneya?”

11

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

betheth?

Home + OBJ

Owa

BeWarm

be

X1

wemaneya,

Winter + TIME

i

And

rahowahil

BeCold + DEGminor

wumaneya?”

Summer + TIME

11“And do you have a home? Is it warm in winter and cool in summer?”


12“Em, Shósho. Bíi habelid le wodo womathesha wa.”

12

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

habelid

Dwell

le

I

wodo

REL + BeStrong

womathesha

REL + Building + PLC

wa.”

MYPERC

12“Yes, Magic Granny. I dwell in a strong building.


13“I bud; báa thi ne bud? She be neth? Shi be neth?”

13

“I

And

bud;

Clothing

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

bud?

Clothing

She

Comfort

be

X1

neth?

You1 + OBJ

Shi

ToPlease

be

X1

neth?”

You1 + OBJ

13“And clothes; do you have clothes? Do they comfort you? Do they please you?”


14“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le wothal wobudeth wa.”

14

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

wothal

REL + BeGood

wobudeth

REL + Clothing + OBJ

wa.”

MYPERC

14“Yes, Magic Granny. I have good clothes.”


15“I báa thi ne laneth, i den be neth úyahú them ne deneth?”

15

“I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

laneth,

Friend + OBJ

i

And

den

Help

be

X1

neth

You1 + OBJ

úyahú

CONJtime

them

Need

ne

You1

deneth?”

Help + OBJ

15“And do you have a friend, and do they help you when you need help”?


16“Em, Shósho. Bíi thi le laneth menedebe wa, i meden ben leth themeya waha.”

16

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

thi

Have

le

I

laneth

Friend + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

wa,

MYPERC

i

And

meden

PL + Help

ben

X>5

leth

I + OBJ

themeya

Need + TIME

waha.”

#Any

16“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many friends, and they help me in any time of need.”


17“I báa nime den ne lan nethoth themeya?”

17

“I

And

báa

Q

nime

BeWilling

den

Help

ne

You1

lan

Friend

nethoth

You1 + POSS + OBJ

themeya”?

Need + TIME

17“And are you willing to help your friends in time of need?”


18“Em, Shósho. Bíi bere medibóo neda ben, ébere den le beneth thenanal themehelewáan.”

18

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

bere

If

medibóo

PL + Request

neda

Only

ben,

X>5

ébere

Then

den

Help

le

I

beneth

X>5 + OBJ

thenanal

JoyGood + MANN

themehelewáan.”

Need + DEGtrivial + COZ

18“Yes, Magic Granny. If they only ask, then I gladly help them with the slightest need.”


19”Báa thad sháad ne nudim e núudim úyahú nédehel ne hith?”

19

“Báa

Q

thad

BeAble

sháad

ComeGo

ne

You1

nudim

Here + GOAL

e

or

núudim

There + GOAL

úyahú

CONJtime

nédehel

Want + DEGtrivial

ne

You1

hith?”

Demo1 + OBJ

19“Can you go hither or thither when you have a whim to?”


20“Em, Shósho. Bíi sháad le dozhenal wahadim wa.”

20

“Em,

Yes

Shósho.

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

sháad

ComeGo

le

I

dozhenal

BeEasy + MANN

wahadim

#Any + GOAL

wa.

MYPERC

20“Yes, Magic Granny. I easily.come and go anywhither ”


21“I báa thi ne haleth? Dóshóod be neth? Shub be thaleth witheda? Them nábedi ne beda?”

21

I

And

báa

Q

thi

Have

ne

You1

haleth?

Work + OBJ

Dóshóod

CAUSEto + BeBusy

be

X1

neth?

You1 + OBJ

Shub

Do

be

X1

thaleth

BeGood + OBJ

witheda?

Person + BENEF

Them

Need

nábedi

CONT + Learn

ne

You1

beda?”

X1 + BENEF

21“And do you have work? Does it keep you busy? Does it do good for people? Do you need to keep learning for it?”


22“Em, Shósho. Bíi hal le wa. Be wothem wohalem. Mehathal mewohal wosháal woho rano mewoharathal wosháaleden nedebe neda. Izh báa dibáa ni daleth hin ledim bebáawan?”

22

“Em,

Yes

Shósho

MagicGranny

Bíi

DECL

hal

Work

le

I

wa.

MYPERC

Be

X1

wothem

REL + Need

wohalem.

REL + Work + IDENT

Mehathal

PL + BeGoodTime

mewohal

PL + REL + Work

wosháal

REL + Day

woho

#All

rano

Almost

mewoharathal

PL + REL + BeBadTime

wosháaleden

REL + Day + ASSOC

nedebe

#2-5

neda.

Only

Izh

But

báa

Q

dibáa

Question

ni

YouHon1

daleth

Thing + OBJ

hin

Demo>5

ledim

I + GOAL

bebáawan?”

Qprn1 + PURP

22“Yes, Magic Granny. I work. It’s necessary work. Almost all work-days are good with only a few bad days. But to what end do you ask me these things?”


23Bíide di Shósho wáa, “Bíidi dubedi le beyeth wa.”

23

Bíide

DECL + NARR

di

Speak

Shósho

MagicGranny

wáa,

TRUSTED

“Bíidi

DECL + DIDACT

dubedi

TRY + Learn

le

I

beyeth

Indef1 + OBJ

wa.”

MYPERC

23Magic Granny said, didactically, “I am trying to learn something.”


24“Báa néde lothel ni bebáath?”

24

“Báa

Q

néde

Want

lothel

Know

ni

YouHon1

bebáath?”

Qprn1 + OBJ

24“What do you want to know?”


25“Bíidi thi ne dal woho wothaleháalish wowída wáa. Rathi ne dal raho. Bóodi di ne ledim lu: báadi tháahul ra ne bebáanal?”

25

“Bíidi

DECL + DIDACT

thi

Have

ne

You1

dal

Thing

woho

#All

wothaleháalish

REL + BeGood + DEGextraord

wowída

REL + Life + BENEF

wáa.

TRUSTED

Rathi

NON + Have = Lack

ne

You1

dal

Thing

raho.

#0

Bóodi

REQ + DIDACT

di

Say

ne

You1

ledim

I + GOAL

lu:

Please

báadi

Q + DIDACT

tháahul

Thrive + DEGextreme

ra

NEG

ne

You1

bebáanal?”

Qprn1 + MANN

25“You have everything for an excellent life. You lack abolutely nothing. Tell me, please: in what way are you not doing very well indeed?


26Bíide láadom Máyel, bishibenal i lishenal, shadon dáanethu Shósho betho wáa; di be, “Bíi eril lhele raláadám wa. Eril meban with menedebe binith menedebe lheledim, i loláad—i dam—lhele rawimath. Ril en lhele, doól, i loláad lhele wenaháalish, bishibenal.”

26

“Bíide

DECL + NARR

láadom

Recognize

Máyel,

Michael

bishibenal

BeSudden + MANN

i

And

lishenal,

Lightning + MANN = Vividly

shadon

Truth

dáanethu

Word + PARTV

Shósho

MagicGranny

bitho

XHon1 + POSS

wáa;

TRUSTED

di

Speak

be,

X1

“Bíi

DECL

eril

PAST

lhele

IDesp

raláadám

NON + Perceive + DOER + IDENT

wa.

MYPERC

Eril

PAST

meban

PL + Give

with

Person

menedebe

#>5

binith

Gift + OBJ

menedebe

#>5

lheledim,

IDesp + GOAL

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

—i

And

dam—

Manifest

lhele

IDesp

rawimath.

Ingratitude(Int,Ø,–)

Ril

PRES

en

Understand

lhele,

IDesp

doól,

AtLast

i

And

loláad

PerceiveInt

lhele

IDesp

wenaháalish,

GratitudeGood + DEGextraord

bishibenal.”

BeSudden + MANN

26Michael suddenly and vividly understood the truth of Magic Granny’s words; he said, “I have been deaf, blind, and wrong-headed. Many people have given me many gifts, and I was ungrateful. Now I understand, finally, and suddenly I’m so very grateful.”


27Bíide lámála Shósho Máyel beth i di wáa, “Bóoli zha ra na nayóoth ‘lhele’ lu; bíili ril na wothalehil woyáawithidem; aril náwí na wothal wosháawithedim thomaya wa. Bíilan wil thena diídineya,” i náasháad bi.

27

Bíide

DECL + NARR

lámála

Caress

Shósho

MagicGranny

Máyel

Michael

beth

X1 + OBJ

i

And

di

Speak

wáa,

TRUSTED

“Bóoli

REQ + LOVE

zha

Name

ra

NEG

na

YouLove1

nayóoth

YouLove1 + REFLX + OBJ

‘lhele’

IDesp

lu;

Please

bíili

DECL + LOVE

ril

PRES

na

YouLove1

wothalehil

REL + BeGood + DEGminor

woyáawithidem;

REL + TEEN + Man + IDENT

aril

FUT

náwí

Grow

na

YouLove1

wothal

REL + BeGood

wosháawithem

REL + Adult + Person + IDENT

thomaya

Near + TIME = SoonRecent

wa.

MYPERC

Bíilan

DECL + CELEB

wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

i

And

náasháad

RESUME + ComeGo

bi.

XHon1

27Magic Granny hugged Michael and said, lovingly, “Please do not name yourself ‘despised;’ you are a decent youth; you will soon grow into a good adult. Happy holiday!” and resumed her progress.


28Bíide dithedelan Máyel Shósho bidim wáa, “Wil thena diídineya! I áalaháalish!”

28

Bíide

DECL + NARR

dithedelan

Speak + BeFar = Call + CELEB

Máyel

Michael

Shósho

MagicGranny

bidim

XHon1 + GOAL

wáa,

TRUSTED

“Wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya!

Holiday + TIME

I

And

áalaháalish!”

Thanks + DEGextraord

28Michael called, in celebration, to Magic Granny, “Happy holiday! And thank you so much!”


29Bíide sháalede hi aril wáa, úyahú di beye behidedim, “Wil thena diídineya,” di behid hadihad, wenanal, “Wil thenaháalish diídineya!”

29

Bíide

DECL + NARR

sháalede

Day + SRC

hi

Demo1

aril

FUT

wáa,

TRUSTED

úyahú

CONJtime

di

Speak

beye

Indef1

behidedim,

He + GOAL

“Wil

OPTV

thena

JoyGood

diídineya,”

Holiday + TIME

di

Speak

behid

He

wenanal,

GratitudeGood + MANN

hadihad,

Always

“Wil

OPTV

thenaháalish

JoyGood + DEGextraord

diídineya!”

Holiday + TIME

29From that day forward, when someone said to him, “Happy holiday”, he always gratefully said, “Happy, happy, happy holiday!”

Free Translation

The Rescue of Michael

2Long ago there was a holiday in the town among the mountains. Everyone was joyfully busy. They came and went hither and thither around the town, and spoke-in-celebration and laughed. Many ones sang and made music. There were many colorful ornaments; they were green and orange and purple. The people made many foods only for the holiday. This was a good and beautiful time; everyone celebrated—except Michael.

3Michael wasn’t joyful. There was the noise of the crowd. The colors of the ornaments didn’t please him. A child said to him in celebration, “Happy holiday!” and he answered her angrily (for no reason); she began to cry because of this.

4Many people asked each other, pained, “Why does Michael feel no joy?” Not one person understood. And then someone spoke to Magic Granny about Michael.

5Magic Granny met Michael, per intention, in the street and paused to talk; she said, “Hello, Michael. How are you?”

6Michael answered her, “Hello, Magic Granny. I’m… okay.”

7Magic Granny asked him, “Why do you say ‘okay’? Are you ill? Are you pain?”

8“No, Magic Granny. I have my health, and I’m free of pain, for-sure.”

9“And do you have food and drink?”

10“I neither hunger nor thirst.”

11“And do you have a home? Is it warm in winter and cool in summer?”

12“Yes, Magic Granny. I dwell in a strong building.

13“And clothes; do you have clothes? Do they comfort you? Do they please you?”

14“Yes, Magic Granny. I have good clothes.”

15“And do you have a friend, and do they help you when you need help”?

16“Yes, Magic Granny. I have many friends, and they help me in any time of need.”

17“And are you willing to help your friends in time of need?”

18“Yes, Magic Granny. If they only ask, then I gladly help them with the slightest need.”

19“Can you go hither or thither when you have a whim to?”

20“Yes, Magic Granny. I come and go anywhither easily.”

21“And do you have work? Does it keep you busy? Does it do good for people? Do you need to keep learning for it?”

22“Yes, Magic Granny. I work. It’s necessary work. Almost all work-days are good with only a few bad days. But to what end do you ask me these things?”

23Magic Granny said, didactically, “I am trying to learn something.”

24“What do you want to know?”

25“You have everything for an excellent life. You lack absolutely nothing. Tell me, please: in what way are you not doing very well indeed?

26Michael suddenly and vividly understood the truth of Magic Granny’s words; he said, “I have been deaf, blind, and wrong-headed. Many people have given me many gifts, and I was ungrateful. Now I understand, finally, and suddenly I’m so very grateful.”

27Magic Granny hugged Michael and said, lovingly, “Please do not name yourself ‘despised;’ you are a decent youth; you will soon grow into a good adult. Happy holiday!” and resumed her progress.

28Michael called, in celebration, to Magic Granny, “Happy holiday! And thank you so much!”

29From that day forward, when someone said to him, “Happy holiday”, he always gratefully said , “Happy, happy, happy holiday!”

Comments

In this translation, we again meet an idiom we’ve crossed paths with before. To translate the English “each other” or “one another” we use two appropriately-pluralized demonstrative pronouns (form of “hi”). They will both be pluralized alike (both “hizh” or both “hin”), as they both refer to the same people. The first of these pronouns represents the Subject and so receives no apparent case ending; the second takes the case of the relationship between/among “each other.” In this instance, “…many people asking each other…” would be translated “…dibáa with menedebe hin hinedim….” Did you notice that the word “menedebe” here is superfluous? Its information is conveyed by the plurality of “hin”. It’s not incorrect, but it’s not needed.

At various points in this story, we’ve seen “with raho” (no person) or “dal raho” (no thing) when we could more easily have said “rawith” (nobody) or “radal” (nothing). The combined forms carry the same denotation (there is no person/thing that fulfills the function), but the connotations of the structure using the quantifier “raho” (zero) are more emphatic—just as English sequences including the phrases “zero people” or “zero things” would be much more emphatic than ones that made use only of “no-one” or “nothing.” An apt English translation for the “raho” sequences might be “absolutely no-one” or “absolutely nothing.”

In this story we’re introduced to the word “shol” (absence of pain). It is very interesting to note that, among languages, what may be a negative concept (deriving only from its opposition to a positive) may very well be a positive concept in some other language. “Shol” is a clear example of such a word: in Láadan, “shol” is a positive statement; it requires nothing to negate; in English, the nearest we can come to this concept is “the absence of pain”.

At one point Magic Granny asks Michael whether he has a friend. The usual formation of this question in English would be “Do you have (any) friends?” Láadan is not so concerned with number, as evidenced by the lack of plural forms for nouns. In the situation Magic Granny finds herself in—asking about the existence of something and then asking particulars about that thing, never having learned how many of the thing there might be—the singular verb (and pronoun, if any) is appropriate. The answerer will correct the number if appropriate, and then the questioner can proceed, corrected.

Magic Granny opines that Michael will grow (náwí) from a decent youth to a good adult. The case assignment here is the same as that for “nahin” (to become). The “before” version is rendered in the Subject case, and the “after” version is in the Identifier case. The reasons for these case assignments will be made clear in a future lesson.

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