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Lesson 25
Manner Case



to be responsible


to be sudden

to be perverse; to be quirky; to be odd; to be hard to understand


Suffix (ToS Word): said in anger


to be gentle


to rejoice


head (body part)




truth; honor [shad (pure; perfect) + on (head)]


to thirst; to be thirsty

Manner Case

[VP CP–S CP–O CP–Manner]

To mark a Case Phrase as Manner (the way in which something is done), add the ending –nal.” This ending is much like the English –ly as in “patiently” and “thoroughly.”

Along with the Manner Case comes the conjunction “únalú” (how; in what manner). Not a question-word, “únalú” introduces a clause that fulfills the Manner case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know how (the manner in which) birds fly.”

Suzette Haden Elgin coined a limited set of conjunctions like “únalú.” Her formation in this set for “how” was “widaweth” [wida (carry) + weth (road; path; way)]. We won’t be using it here, but you should recognize it if you should happen upon it.


We’re all taught in grammar school that words ending in –ly in English are “adverbs” because they can modify a verb or an adjective in addition to modifying a noun. It is important that we draw the distinction between these, which in Láadan are Manner Case elements, and “true adverbs.” “True adverbs” are rare and magical words; a true adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence—and the entire meaning of the sentence changes with each new placement. A few English “true adverbs” are: “almost,” “only,” and “even.”

Mary can climb that mountain.
Even Mary can climb that mountain.
Mary can even climb that mountain.
Mary can climb even that mountain.

It’s instructive to note the how the speaker’s perception of Mary’s climing skills and the degree of challenge posed by that mountain change with the various placements of “even.”

Láadan uses postpositions for some of these functions, such as “neda” (only) and “rano” (almost). Others are handled by other Láadan grammatical features; “even” is one of these; it will be addressed in a future lesson.


Bíi hal behid wa.

He works.

Báa hal behid bebáanal?

How (in what manner) does he work?

Bíi hal behid lóolonal wa.

He works slowly.

Bíi hal behid Méri benal wa.

He works like (in the manner of) Mary.

Bíi hal behid thulenal wa.

He works like (in the manner of) a parent.

Bíi hal behid thul Méri bethanal wa.

He works like (in the manner of) Mary’s parent.

By this time it should be routine to note that personal names do not take suffixes, as in the fourth and sixth examples above, and that the Case ending will move to the end of the Possessive case phrase, as in the sixth.

Bíi medibíi bezh únalú hal le wa.

They (few) declare how (in what manner) he works.

Bíi mehal bezh hinal wa.

They (few) work thus (in this/that manner).

Bíi mehal bezh zhenal wa.

They work likewise (in similar manner).

Bíi mehal bezh beyenal wa.

They work somehow (in some manner).

Bíi mehal bezh ranal wa.

They work nohow (in no manner).

Bíi mehal bezh thul ranal wa.

They work in any way but like a parent.

Bíi mehal bezh hizh hizhenal wa.

They work like each other.

Notice the pair of examples using “ranal[ra– (NON) + –nal (MANN)]. The first of these is a straightforward statement that the Manner Case does not apply. The second, on the other hand, states that the case does apply, but that the noun it would be applied to absolutely does not. In effect, this example excludes this noun from the Mannner Case function.


Translate the following into English.


Bíi aríli medi háawith woho Láadan dozhenal wa.


Báa ril yod shamid bebáanal? I romid?


Bé aril meháana shem nitha shenal wa.


Bíi eril boóbin sherídan letha delith onetha shinehothuletha letha lemaháalishenal wa.


Bíi wil théenosháad wohúuya wohamedarahá lonal wa.


Bíid ril lothel Mázhareth únalú naya le shinehoberídan lhebethath wa.

In #2, did you get the “flavor” of the word “shamid” (domestic creature) [sha (harmony) + mid (creature)]? The complement of “shamid” is “romid” (wild animal) [ro (weather) + mid (creature)]. The extension of “harmony” to “domestic” and “weather” to “wild” is noteworthy.

Also in #2, note that the Interrogative and Present tense are established in the first sentence and so need not be repeated in the second—though they could be, for emphasis or clarity, at the speaker’s discretion.

Incorporate the second noun as a Manner; translate into English before and after.


Bíi ril methad melalom mewobalin wowithizh wa.



Báa il nayahá lometh?



Bíi aril rilin wohóoha wodéelahá laleth wáa.



Bíi dibé bel dená lenetho anath wa.



Bóo mewam i merile nan.



Báa eril dúuzho woloyo wolanemid?


Note the word “yadahal” [yada (be thirsty) + –hal (DEGunusual)] to be incorporated into #10. When applying multiple suffixes to a word, the Degree marker becomes part of the meaning that fulfills the Case role; therefore, the Degree marker will be applied and then the Case ending. There are very few suffixes that can follow a Case ending (we’ll see them in later lessons). Therefore, we’d build the word thus: “yada” (be thirsty) + “–hal (DEGunusual) + –nal (MANN): “yadahalenal.”

Translate the following into Láadan.


The education-specialist learns how students dress themselves.


Are Anthony’s friends trying to create a family intentionally?


Suddenly the senior was responsible to question the sweetness of being alive.


I understand the busy teacher will depart honorably.


[narrative, long ago, made-up] All the mice followed the man extremely peculiarly.


Clearly, every mother wants to protect her children somehow.

Did the word “student” in #13 present any difficulty? It may have, as it is not one of the most transparent –á formations. In Láadan, a “student” is “one who learns:” “bedihá” [bedi (to learn) + –á (DOER)].

In #17 and #18, we see one sentence plural and one singular—in the English. In Láadan, they both use the quantifier “woho” (all; every). The result is that both Láadan sentences must be plural, regardless of the English.




In the far future, all children will speak Láadan easily.


How (in what manner) does the domestic animal eat? And the wild animal?


I promise honored-your children shall sleep comfortably.


My niece braided my great-grandmother’s head’s hair extraordinarily gently.


Would that the dancer arrive rejoicingly.


[angry] Margaret knows how I care for despised-her great-great-aunt.



The old women can sing.

Bíi ril methad melalom mewobalin wowithizh áyanal wa.

The old women can sing beautifully.


Does the caregiver pay attention to the song?

Báa il nayahá lometh bebáanal?

How (in what way) does the caregiver pay attention to the song?


I understand the weary gardener will drink milk.

Bíi aril rilin whóoha déelahá laleth yadanal wáa.

I understand the weary gardener will drink milk thirstily.


Our (many of us) assistant promised to bring food.

Bíi eril dibé bel dená lenetho anath beyenal wa.

Our (many of us) assistant promised to bring food somehow.


Prithee you-many-beloved, be still and silent.

Bóo mewam i merile nan zhenal.

Prithee you-many-beloved, be still and silent likewise.


Was the black dog trying in vain to bark?

Báa eril dúuzho woloyo wolanemid hinal?

Was the black dog trying in vain to bark thus?



Bíi ril bedi ehomá únalú mebud bedihá beyóoneth wáa.


Báa meduhel lan Ánetheni betho onidath nédeshubenal?


Bé eril áhesh dibáa zháawith meénan wíithuth bishibenal wa.


Bíi aril nasháad woshóod wohomá shadonenal wáa.


Bíide eríli medoth edemid woho withideth búhulenal wo.


Bíi menéde medóyom thulizh woho shem benethath beyenal wi.