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Lesson 24
Vocabulary Practice 4


Vocabulary

áayo

skirt

bini

gift

bithim

to meet

Bóo

Type-of-Sentence Word: Request

dazh

to be soft, pliant, yielding

ed

tool

inad

trousers; pants

liri

to be colored

losh

money, credit

lu

please (interjection used when making a request)

shad

to be pure; to be perfect

shal

courtesy; manners

she

to comfort

shim

to sexual-act (completely neutral & abstract term)

shub

to do

une

to wear

waálh

Evidence Word: assumed false by X because X distrusts source; evil intent also assumed

we

Evidence Word: perceived by X in a dream

wili

creek, river

wóo

Evidence Word: used to indicate that X states a total lack of knowledge as to the validity of the matter

wóoban

to give birth

Examples

Bíi éthe beth netho wa.listen to this pronounced

Your home is clean.

Bíi dóhéthe ne beth netho wa.listen to this pronounced

You clean (cause to be clean) your home.

Báa dóhéthe ne beth nethoth?listen to this pronounced

Do you clean your home?

Báa dóhéthe bebáa beth nethoth?listen to this pronounced

Who cleans your home?

Bóo dóhéthe ne beth nethoth.listen to this pronounced

Prithee clean your home.

Along with “bóo”, the request Type-of-Sentence word, we also get the verb “dibóo” (to request; to ask for). As a noun, “dibóo” would mean (a/the request).

You may encounter the word “mime” in older Láadan texts. It was defned as “to ask.” However, the concept is very English-influenced—ambiguous between “asking” (“asking” a question or for information—in Láadan using the Type-of-Sentence word “báa”) and “requesting” (“asking” for something or for someone to do something—in Láadan using the Type-of-Sentence word “bóo”). “Mime” is not used in these lessons, but it will be helpful to be able to recognize it if you should happen upon it.


Bíi éthe beth netho wa.

Your home is clean.

Bíi dóhéthe ne beth nethoth wa.

You clean (cause to be clean) your home.

Báa dóhéthe ne beth nethoth?

Do you clean your home?

Báa dóhéthe bebáa beth nethoth?

Who cleans your home?

Bóo dóhéthe ne beth nethoth.

Prithee clean your home.

In the English translation of a Request, we’ll use the form “Prithee....” It’s rather stilted English, but it captures the sense of a polite request without the use of “please”, for which there is a separate Láadan word, “lu”.

Notice that—unlike in English—the Subject is not optional in a Request in Láadan. The Subject will be specified, and usually will be some form of the second-person pronoun, “ne.”

Notice that no Evidence Morpheme is required in a Request (no information is being presented whose validity should be confirmed, just as is the case in the Interrogative). And on the subject of Evidence Words:

Bíi laya mahina wi. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (as anyone can plainly see).

Bíi laya mahina wa. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (according to my perceptions).

Bíi laya mahina wáa. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (I’m told, and I trust the source).

Bíi laya mahina waá. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (I’m told, but I mistrust the source).

Bíi laya mahina waálh. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (I’m told, but I mistrust the source—and I believe the source is misleading me on purpose with ill intent).

Bíi laya mahina we. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (in my dream).

Bíi laya mahina wo. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (in the story I’m making up; hypothetically).

Bíi laya mahina wóo. listen to this pronounced

The flower is red (as a guess, with no convincing evidence).

Waálh” is simply “waá” (I mistrust the source of the report) with the pejorative affix, “lh,” added to introduce the perception of ill intent to the situation; this is an excellent example of the use of the pejorative affix. Now that we’ve been introduced to “waálh,” “we” and “wóo,” we are now acquainted with the complete set of Evidence Words as provided by Suzette Haden Elgin.

Báa shub ro bebáath?

What is the weather?

Note, above, the idiom for asking what the weather is like. Literally, the question means, “What does the weather do?

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1

Bíi eril néde ban ábedá mewolaya wobabí beyezh lalomádim wáa.

2

Bíi ril nosháad wodóhada wodadem dathimáthu beth shonáthode wohíthi wobodim wáa.

3

Báa mehaba i melirihul mahina woháya wodalatha?

4

Em, i medazhehal mi betha íi wa.

5

Bíi im lan letho wilidim; nédeshub bithim be wolawida wosherídan bethath wa.

6

Bíi shal weth shadim i shonedim wa.

7

Báa aril doth Mázhareth edin bethath meladim?

8

Bóo bel ne mewotháa wohemeneth omádim.

9

Bíi ril menime meralóolo déelahá; wóoban berídan bezhetha wa.

10

Bíi míi onida; eril sháad wowem worul wodóon wobelidedim wáa.

Translate the following into Láadan

11

The assistant promised to braid the traveler’s grandmother’s hair.

12

What did you (few) eat? Was it good?

13

Our food was fruit, bread and milk.

14

The baker’ offspring couldn’t help Michael to safety (I dreamed).

15

Prithee ask (you few) whither (to where) the clouds are moving.

16

Will the weary horse carry grain hence thither (from here to there)?

17

The money was a gift from the alien to the sailor.

18

The worker remembered to buy some (many) tools from the store.

19

The bankers don’t need to get trousers or skirts.

20

A linguist created Láadan; it comforts us (many).


In #12, because we’ve already established the interrogative mode and the past tense in the first sentence, we don’t need to include either “Báa” or “eril” at the beginning of the second sentence (though we could, for emphasis or to remove any possibility of ambiguity).

In #15, did you notice that you couldn’t (yet) specify the mountains as plural? Our next lesson but one will ease this restriction.

In #16 & #18, did you notice the surface similarities between “edeth” from “ede” + –th (Object Case: grain) and “edeth” from “ed” + –th (Object Case: tool)? This can happen; in connected speech or writing it will not be so confusing.

In #19, were you able to form the word for “banker?” A banker is one who deals in (or “does”) money and credit: “loshá.”

In #20, were you able to form the word “linguist?” “Linguistics” is the science of language: “edan.” One who studies/practices this science is a “linguist:” “edaná.”

Also in #20, did you notice the ambiguity? The Subject of the second clause is “be” (she/he/it/X). It is impossible to tell, from the Láadan, whether it is the language or the linguist that comforts us. More discourse would be required to clarify.

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Answers

1

The farmer wanted to give the singer several red birds.

2

The comic picture of the needleworker is arriving at the high mountain from the peacemaker’s home.

3

Are the flowers of the beautiful plant fragrant and extremely colorful?

4

Yes, and its leaves are extremely soft also.

5

My friend is traveling to the river; X intends to meet X’s pregnant niece.

6

Courtesy is a path to harmony and peace.

7

Will Margaret follow her cousin to the ocean?

8

Prithee take the thriving bushes to the teacher.

9

The gardeners will be quick; their aunt is giving birth.

10

The family is amazed; the lost cat came to the correct house.

 

11

Bíi eril dibé boóbin dená delith hothuletha imáthath wa.

12

Báa eril meyod nezh bebáath? Thal be? listen to this pronounced

13

Bíi eril ana lezhetho yum, balem i lalem wa.

14

Bíi eril thad den ra shem ebalátha

15

Bóo medibáa nezh údimú memina boshum.

16

Báa aril wida wohóoha wohomid edeth hi nude núudim?

17

Bíi eril losh binim néeháde eshádim wa.

18

Bíi eril dom eb halá edeth beyen wehede wáa.

19

Bíi ril methem methel ra loshá inadeth e áayoth wi.

20

Bíi eril el edaná Láadan; ril she be leneth wa. listen to this pronounced

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