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Lesson 10
Vocabulary Practice 2


Vocabulary

–á

Suffix (any): one who does or makes; doer of; maker of

amedara

to dance

ash

star

babí

bird

déela

garden

dem

window

e–

Prefix (any): science of

héena

sibling-of-the-heart

hothul

grandparent [ho– (one generation removed) + thul (parent)]

lan

friend

lanemid

dog [lan (friend) + mid (creature)]

om

to teach

onida

family

osháana

to menstruate

rathal

to be bad [ra– (NON) + thal (good)]

shon

peace

urahu

gate [u (open) + rahu (closed)]

wam

to be still; to be calm

yu

fruit

Here you’ll notice some more “constructed” words: lanemid, rathal, urahu. Previously we’ve seen “boshum” (cloud) [bo (mountain) + shum (air)], “rahíya” (be large) [ra– (NON) + híya (be small)], “rahu” (be closed) [ra– (NON) + u (be open)], among others. Láadan creates new words easily by the process of adding words and meaningful word-parts (linguists call these meaningful word-parts “morphemes”) together.

Examples

Bíi thal ro wa.

The weather is good.

Bíi thal ra ro wa.

The weather is not good.

Bíi rathal ro wa.

The weather is bad.

Bíi rathal ra ro wa.

The weather is not bad.

Sciences and Scientists

We are introducing two new affixes. “Affix” is a generic term for prefixes (added to the beginning of words) and suffixes (added to the end of words). The term “affix” also includes infixes (added into the middle of words), which English doesn’t use but Láadan does somewhat.

The prefix “e–” means “science of” and is similar in meaning to the English suffix “–ology.” The suffix “–á” means “doer” or “one who…” and is rather like the English suffixes “–er” and “–ist.” You can form many useful words with the suffix “–á” and the prefix “e–”. For example, you can begin with “shon,” the word meaning “peace;” “shoná” means “peacemaker,” “eshon” means “peace science,” and “eshoná” would then be “peace scientist.” Similarly, from “om,” “to teach,” we have “omá,” “teacher” and “ehom,” “education” and “ehomá;” this last refers to a specialist in education who is not herself necessarily a teacher.

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1

Bíi liyen i tháa hesh wi.

2

Bíi aril medo i mehowa belid wo.

3

Bíi eríli rahíya ra ábed wa; ril híya ra be.

4

Bíi ril medoth ra hothul wa.

5

Bíi wil ralóolo i leyi mazh wa.

6

Bíi rilrili medi, melalom, i mehada lan waá.

7

Bé aril nime rathal ra eshoná wa.

8

Bíi aril methem meháana lanemid wi, izh ril menéde ra wa.

9

Bé ril nédeshub amedara le wa.

10

Bíi eril mehéeya mewam thili wáa.

In the second clause of #8, did you notice that the full Verb Complex is not given, since the second verb would be the same as that in the first clause? This is because all human languages resist repeating identical information in rapid succession—which is why we have Verb Complexes in the first place. As shown here, we use the first verb (the one that’s different) and omit the second (that’s the same).

Translate the following into Láadan

In some of these sentences, I’ve provided English phrases that suggest Evidence Words; in others you’ll need to supply them; experiment with the meanings the various Evidence Words add to the Láadan that the provided English sentence is simply missing.

11

I swear the window is not open.

12

The doors are not red.

13

The family is busy.

14

The stars are beautiful.

15

I promise the garden will be good and beautiful.

16

Animals do not needlework, obviously.

17

The alien hopes to be safe at last.

18

I doubt the farmers promised to be correct.

19

A worker clearly must not be slow.

20

I suppose the peacemakers did not remember to eat.

Did you remember to use the place-specific verbs in #15?

How did you do forming the word for “alien” in #17? We know “née” (to be alien); “an alien” is an individual who “is alien.” We’d simply apply the “agentive suffix,” “–á,” and we have “néehá,” (remember the “h” to separate the vowels) the Láadan word for “alien.”

Did you have any trouble forming the word for “farmer” in #18? We know “ábed,” the word for “farm;” all we need do is add “–á,” and we have “ábedá,” the word for “farmer.”

By now you had no trouble forming the word for “worker” in #19. We know “hal,” the word for “to work;” all we need do is add “–á,” and we have “halá,” the word for “worker.”

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Answers

1

Clearly, the grass is green and thriving.

2

I’m guessing the houses will be strong and warm.

3

Long ago the farm was not large; now it’s not small.

4

The grandparents are not following.

5

Would that the car be quick and blue.

6

I doubt that the friends might talk, sing, and laugh.

7

I promise the peace-scientist will not be willling to be bad.

8

The dogs will need to sleep, obviously, but right now they don’t want to.

9

I swear I intend to dance.

10

I understand the fish were afraid to be still.

 

11

Bé u ra dem wa.

12

Bíi melaya ra áath wáa.

13

Bíi shóod onida wa.

14

Bíi meháya ash wi.

15

Bé aril hothal i hóya déela wa.

16

Bíi medathim ra mid wi.

17

Bíi ril ul yom néehá doól wáa.

18

Bíi eril medibé medóon ábedá waá.

19

Bíi dush lóolo ra halá wi.

20

Bíi eril medom meyod ra shoná wo.

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