[Back to Table of Contents]
Prev: [Embedded Sentences]
Next: [Embedded Questions]
[Printable (pdf) version of this lesson]

Lesson 45
Vocabulary Practice 7


Vocabulary

áalaá

butterfly

bin

bowl

bire

layer

bod

line (on a surface; of text; of computer program)

bohí

be short (length) [insp: bod (line) + híya (be small)] {AB}

dumidal

fox [mid (creature)]

hahí

be brief; be short (duration) [insp: hath (time) + híya (be small)] {AB}

hed

drinking glass

hom

nectar

huhid

king [hu (boss; ruler) + –id (MALE)]

lub

poultry, fowl

lush

mystery

mihí

be small (area) [insp: mi (leaf) + híya (be small)] {AB}

ni

cup

oódóo

bridge

rin

plate

rushi

wine

shahina

rose (the flower) [sha (harmony) + mahina (flower)]

yum

beetle

zhu

tea


You might be interested in knowing a little more about the words for “bridge” and “butterfly.” One of the things that women do in their language behavior, in all of the languages I know, is a whole lot of body language work. I wanted that work to be less in Láadan, and the language is therefore constructed to lexicalize body language. (That is, to give it a pronounced form, instead of leaving it all to be done by tone of voice and gesture and facial expression and so on.) That’s why you have the set of words that tell whether the sentence coming up is a statement or question or something else; and that’s why you have the endings that tell whether the sentence is meant as a joke or a lesson or a narrative or something else—to reduce the communications labor for the women speaking.

The word for bridge, when its tone markers are in the right place, has a sound pattern like this: —¯ ¯—. The word for butterfly is like this: ¯— —¯. Since intonation (the melody that carries the spoken words) is part of body language, this is another way of lexicalizing it. For both of these words, the voice makes the shape of the thing named, in the ear’s space and the ear’s time. Shapes “in the air,” you perceive, but for the ear rather than for the eye.

The word “bod” (line) above is a homonym (same sound) of “bod” (dish). This can happen in any language, and Láadan is no exception. Fortunately, the “semantic domains” (the areas of discussion in which they are likely to be used) of these two words are sufficiently distant from each other that no confusion is likely.

There are three new words that specify “smallness” in various dimensions. Answering an expressed need for a Láadan word for, if memory serves, “short,” these are the result. The first, “bohí” (short—length) measures its smallness in only one dimension: length. The second, “mihí” (small—area) measures its smallness in two dimensions: length and width. The decision was taken to let the standard “híya” (small) stand for the three-dimensionally small. For the fourth dimension (time), we have “hahí” (short—duration; brief).

The word “bire” (layer) was originally coined as “bre,” beginning with “br,” a consonant-cluster forbidden in Láadan. This was an historical accident (occasioned by the fact that “r” isn’t a consonant in the same sense that “b” is), and has been corrected by the second generation developing Láadan. We will not be using the archaic “bre” form, but you should be prepared to recognize it, should you happen across it.

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1Bíide eril melolin i meyod lod wum óowasha o háanáaleya úyahú nohal le wa. 2Thalehul anadal. 3Meham bal thuden, i lub i máa wohaba wohódoneden binesha, i meda rinesha. 4Merilin len rushith mewowedeth wohedede. 5Mehalehale i mehamedara len anadaleya aril. 6Úyhahú menahóoha len, mesháad belidedim nil, i naháana le. 7Thi le mewoháya wohozheth. 8Shumáad le áalaádan menedebe i un le beneth yáaninedim boó oódóosha thoma we. 9Noháana le úyahú nalíithin wohene wothosh wa. 10Ril láad le owath onanan beróo naham rosh; aril háyahal sháal; rilrili shóo wothaleháalish wobeye.

Of course, since the preceding sentences are presented as a story in paragraph form, no Type-of-Sentence Words are required after the first sentence. Nor are Evidence Words—except when we switch to dream perception and back.

Translate the following into Láadan

11

The teacher asked the child, “Does your horse live on land or in the ocean?”

12

“On land,” replied the child.

13

The teacher asked, “Is a horse a wild animal or a domesticated animal?”

14

“A domesticated animal.”

15

“Does a fish live on land or in the ocean?”

16

The child thought and said, “In the ocean.”

17

The child was still. Slowly she began to cry.

18

The teacher asked, “Why are you crying?”

19

The child said in a small voice, “I play music for my horse, but I shall never play for the fish because it would need many days for me to travel to the ocean.”

20

The teacher smiled gently and said, “You will be able to do it. If you were never able to play music for the fish, then I would cry too.”

In case you couldn’t follow the (fairly advanced) syntax of the answer to #19, the third clause is “…rilrili them [im le meladim]ehé sháaleth menedebe…” (…would need [I travel to the ocean] many days…). The embedded clause is the Subject of the verb “them” (need).

In my answer to #20, I employed an idiomatic usage of “hi” (this/that) to refer to a previous clause.

top

Answers

1

The entire household gathered and ate around the fire in the evening when I finished working.

2

The meal was extremely good.

3

There were bread with honey, poultry and eggs with fragrant cheese on plates, and a vegetable in bowls.

4

We drank wine from clear glasses.

5

We made music and danced after the meal.

6

When we began to tire, we went into the house, and I went to sleep.

7

I had beautiful dreams.

8

I dreamed I was flying with many butterflies (with pleasure) and led them to three trees near a bridge.

9

I awoke when the eastern sky was beginning to be grey.

10

I feel warmth on my face because the sun is beginning to shine; it’s going to be an unusually beautiful day; maybe something wonderful will happen.

 

11

Bíi eril dibáa omá háawithedim wáa, “Báa habelid omid netho donisha e melasha?”

12

“Donisha wa,” nédi háawith wáa.

13

Bíi eril dibáa omá wáa, “Báa omid romid e shamid?”

14

“Shamid wa.”

15

“Báa habelid thili donisha e melasha?”

16

Bíi eril lith háawith wáa, i di be, “Melasha wa.”

17

Bíi eril wam háawith wáa. Nadelishe be lóolonal.

18

Bíi eril dibáa omá wáa, “Delishe ne bebáawáan?”

19

Bíi eril di háawith híyanal wáa, “Bíi alehale le omid lethoda, izh aril alehale ra le thilida rahadihad beróo rilrili them im le meladimehé sháaleth menedebe wa.”

20

Bíi eril áada omá lemanal wáa, i di, “Aril thad ne hith. Rilrili bere thad alehale ra ne thilida rahadihad, ébere delishe le íi.”

top