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Lesson 39
Purpose Case


Vocabulary

–da

Suffix (Type-of-Sentence Word): said in jest; telling a joke

domid

elephant [dom (remember) + mid (creature)]

ezha

snake

lath

to be celibate by choice

–li

Suffix (Type-of-Sentence Word): said in love

máanan

to be salty (flavor)

rúsho

to be bitter (flavor)

thé–

Prefix (verb): about to VERB, any minute

ub

balm

wedeth

to be clear

Purpose Case

[VP CP–S CP–O CP–Mann
CP–Instr CP–Assoc
CP–Goal CP–Src CP–Plc CP–Time
CP–Benef CP–Purpose]

The ending used to mark a Case Phrase as the Purpose for what is in the statement. The Purpose Case ending is –wan,” which means “in order to, for the purpose of.”

Along with the Cause Case comes the conjunction “úwanú” (why; for what purpose). Not a question-word, “úwanú” introduces a clause that fulfills the Purpose case-role, as in the English sentence, “I know why (for what purpose) birds fly.

Suzette Haden Elgin coined a limited set of conjunctions like “úwanú.” Her formation in this set for “why” was “widahuth.” We won’t be using it here, but you should recognize it if you should happen upon it.

Examples

Bíi hal behid wa.

He works.

Báa hal behid bebáawan?

Why (to what end) does he work?

Bíi hal behid tháawan wa.

He works for (in order to promote) wellbeing.

Bíi hal behid Méri bewan wa.

He works for Mary’s ends.

Bíi hal behid tháa Méri bethowan wa.

He works for Mary’s wellbeing.

By this time it should be routine to note that personal names do not take suffixes, as in the fourth and fifth examples above, and that the Case ending will move to the end of the Possessive case phrase, as in the fifth.

Bíi medibíi bezh úwanú hal behid wa.

They (few) declare why (to what end) he works.


Bíi mehal bezh hiwan wa.

They (few) work for (in order that) this/that.

Bíi mehal bezh zhewan wa.

They work for (in order that) the same.

Bíi mehal bezh beyewan wa.

They work for (in order that) someone/something.

Bíi mehal bezh rawan wa.

They work for no purpose/to no end.

Bíi mehal bezh tháa rawan wa.

They work to promote anthing but wellbeing.
They work even though wellbeing may ensue.

Bíi mehal bezh hizh hizhewan wa.

They work for each other’s ends.

Notice the pair of examples using “rawan[ra– (NON) + –wan (PURP)]. The first of these is a straightforward statement that there is nothing to which the Purpose Case applies. The second, on the other hand, states that the case does apply, but that the noun it would be applied to absolutely does not. In effect, this example excludes this noun from the Purpose Case function.

Idiomatically, this construction also has the effect of reversing the action of the Purpose Case function, stating that the action is despite the promotion of the person/thing named in the case phrase; this reversal is true in all three of the “intentional” cases (Beneficiary, presented previously; Purpose, presented here; and Cause, in the very next lesson).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1

Báa thóláad ezhubá oyunan úwanú eril náahulanin háawith?

2

Bíi eril théthel Elízhabeth anath edethiwan we.

3

Bíi eril di shoná wáa, “Bóo mewam nezh lohilewan.”

4

Bíi aril mebithim Ánetheni i Másha melasha ib ilisháadewan wo.

5

Bíi wil ban eduthahá ubeth hoberídan lethodim shewan wa.

6

Báa eril bel odá losheth domidenan henedim bebáawan?

Incorporate the second noun as a Purpose; translate into English before and after.

7

Bíi medibáa ehená daleth woho wi.

bedi—i om

8

Bé eril ilehul Méri diháth wáa.

wowedeth wolishid

9

Báada ril mewéedan bedihá nedebe wozhe woháabeth ezha bethu?

bebáa

10

Bóolan aril mesháad nan heshehothedim elahelaya aril wa.

amedara

11

Bíi aril im ehomá shishidebethesha mesh núudim nude wo.

thod

12

Bée lámála yahaneshá udademeth wa.

ramíili beye

Translate the following into Láadan.

13

Are the female clergy standing silently for the purposes of celibacy-by-choice?

14

I promise I shall carry the container of tools to the road in order to help.

15

(LOVE) Prithee, beloved, cook bitter bread using salty butter for breaking our fast.

16

(MAND/ANGRY) Eat your vegetables to grow!

17

(WARN) Some-many-ones stay inside the barn for safety.

18

I dream Mom remembers why (to what end) the linguist paused in creating the language.

In #15, did you have any trouble forming a word for “break … fast?” Consider that “to break a fast” means to stop fasting or begin eating (after a fast). Since fasting is essential to both definitions, we’ve coined a new word (an on-the-fly formation; not one that would be found in a dictiobary): “nódod” [nó– (STOP) + dod (to fast)].

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Answers

1

Has the entomologist just heard why (for what purpose) the child resumed studying?

2

In my dream Elizabeth was just about to get food to share.

3

I understand the peacemaker said, “Prithee you-few be still for introspection (in order to perceive internally).

4

I suppose Anthony and Marsha will meet next to the ocean in order to swim.

5

Would that the physician give my great-aunt a balm to promote comfort.

6

To what end did the weaver take money to the east using an elephant?

 

7

Clearly, philosophers question everything.

Bíi medibáa ehená daleth woho bediwan—i omewan wi.

Clearly, philosophers question everything in order to learn—and in order to teach.

8

I swear I understand Mary paid extremely close attention to the speaker.

Bé eril ilehul Méri diháth wowedeth wolishidewan wáa.

I swear I understand Mary paid extremely close attention to the speaker in order for the purposes of clear signing.

9

(JOKE) Are all the students reading the same book about snakes?

Báada ril mewéedan bedihá nedebe wozhe woháabeth ezha bethu bebáawan?

(JOKE) To what end are all the students reading the same book about snakes?

10

(CELEB) Prithee beloved-you-many come/go to the park after the celebration.

Bóolan aril mesháad nan heshehothedim elahelaya aril amedarawan wa.

(CELEB) Prithee beloved-you-many come/go to the park after the celebration for dancing.

11

I suppose the education-specialist will travel across the country thither hence (to there from here).

Bíi aril im ehomá shishidebethesha mesh núudim nude thodewan wo.

I suppose the education-specialist will travel across the country thither hence for the purpose of writing.

12

(WARN) The magician caresses the statue.

Bée lámála yahaneshá udademeth ramíiliwan beye.

(WARN) The magician caresses the statue for some evil purpose.

 

13

Báa ril methib wíithamizh rilenal lathewan?

14

Bé aril wida le dim edethuth wethedim denewan.

15

Bóoli mahinin na worúsho wobaleth womáanan wohobenan nódod lezhethowan.

16

Bód yod ne meda nethoth náwíwan!

17

Bée mebenem beyen róomathesha nil yomewan wa.

18

Bíi ril dom Mathul úwanú eril nóohel edaná daneth we.

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