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Lesson 3
Vocabulary Practice 1


In the third of each set of seven lessons, we’ll have a lesson with no grammar at all. These will be times to rehearse what we’ve learned so far and to add some new vocabulary with which to play.

Vocabulary

áana

sleep

áath

door

bud

clothing

ede

grain

héeya

to fear

hesh

grass

i

and

laya

to be red

lom

song

muda

pig

rana

drink; beverage

shum

air

thal

to be good

tham

circle

thili

fish

thom

pillow

u

to be open

ud

stone

wíi

to be alive; to be living

zháadin

to menopause

Examples

Bíi áya hesh wa. listen to this pronounced

The grass is beautiful.

Bíi áya lom wa. listen to this pronounced

The song is beautiful.

Bíi áya thili wa. listen to this pronounced

The fish is beautiful.

 

Bíi áya wíi wa. listen to this pronounced

Being alive is beautiful.

Did you notice, in the last example, that a word that had been introduced as a verb, “wíi” (to be alive), was used as a noun, “wíi” (being alive)?

English does the same thing (known grammatically as “nominalization”), forming “abandonment” from “to abandon,” “carelessness” from “to be careless,” and so on; any English verb can be used as a noun if “–ing” is added, as in “Swimming is good exercise.

This process, which is common to all human languages, is very easin Láadan. Simply use the verb in the noun’s place in the sentence and add a case suffix to in (in this case that’s the Subject Case suffix, which is a “null suffix”); this will become clear in subsequent lessons.

Bíi hal with wa. listen to this pronounced

The person works.

Bíi óoha with wa. listen to this pronounced

The person is weary.

Bíi hal i óoha with wa. listen to this pronounced

The person works and is weary.

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1  

Bíi u áath wa.

2  

Bíi laya bud wa.

3  

Bíi áana muda wa.

4  

Bíi wíi ede wa.

5  

Bíi thal hesh wa.

6  

Bíi laya tham wa.

7  

Bíi thal ud wa.

8  

Bíi zháadin muda wa.

9  

Bíi wíi thili wa.

10  

Bíi thal lom wa.

Note, in #8, that “zháadin” (to menopause) is done exclusively by females. Therefore, we could be more specific and translate “muda” (pig) in this sentence as “sow”.

Translate the following into Láadan

11  

The circle is open.

12  

The pig is alive.

13  

The beverage is red.

14  

The air is good.

15  

The fish menopause.

16  

The clothing is open.

17  

The grass is alive.

18  

The pillow is red.

19  

The grain is good.

20  

The fish is afraid.

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Answers

1

The door is open.

2

The clothing is red.

3

The pig sleeps.

4

The grain is alive.

5

The grass is good.

6

The circle is red.

7

The stone is good.

8

The sow menopauses.

9

The fish is alive.

10

The song is good.

 

11

Bíi u tham wa.

12

Bíi wíana muda wa.

13

Bíi laya rana wa.

14

Bíi thal shum wa.

15

Bíi zháadin thili wa.

16

Bíi u bud wa.

17

Bíi wíi hesh wa.

18

Bíi laya thom wa.

19

Bíi thal ede wa.

20

Bíi héeya thili wa.

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